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Planet earth is surrounded by air. This air is arranged according to the pressure it receives, becoming denser or less dense as it moves away from Earth.
The atmosphere consists of five layers: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere; that serve as protection, since if they did not exist we would not bear the heat emitted by the sun's rays.
Similarly would happen the earth cooling at night, where we would lose all the heat acquired by the sun, suffering a very rapid variation of temperature.
The nearest air layer to the Earth is called Troposphere, this layer extends up to 20 km from the ground at the equator and approximately 10 km at the poles. It is the air in which we live, breathe and where natural phenomena such as rain, snow, winds and lightning occur. It is also in the troposphere that air pollution occurs. Cargo and passenger aircraft fly in this layer.
Temperatures in this layer may range from 40 ° C to -60 ° C. The higher the altitude the lower the temperature.
Above the troposphere is the Stratosphere. This layer occupies a range that goes up to 50 km above the ground. Temperatures in this layer range from -5 ° C to -70 ° C.
At Stratosphere the ozone layer is located, that protects the earth by absorbing the ultraviolet rays of the sun. It is in this layer that airplanes make their flights and where the greenhouse effect happens. Greenhouse effect is caused by the emission of gases into the atmosphere, gases like CO2, which released in large quantities, seriously contributes to global warming. This phenomenon happens due to the strong pollution that the planet suffers daily, and this is causing holes in the ozone layer, which in turn is causing the warming of the atmosphere. In addition to warming the earth, this ozone "failure" allows electromagnetic waves to enter the earth, the so-called UVa and UVb rays, which can cause many cancers.
Between 50 and 80 kilometers away from Earth we have the Mesosphereextremely cold air layer with temperatures ranging from -10 ° C to -100 ° C. The bottom is warmer because it absorbs heat from the stratosphere. In this layer occurs the phenomenon of aeroluminescence.
The next layer is the Thermosphere. It lies between 80 kilometers and 500 kilometers away from Earth. It is the most extensive atmospheric layer. O air is very scarce and rare and is called thin air. It is the warmest layer, as the rare air molecules absorb radiation from the sun. The temperatures at the top reach 1,000 ° C. The lower layer of the thermosphere is called the ionosphere. This is where ions - small electrical particles - are used to receive and transmit radio frequencies.
The last layer, that is, the furthest from the earth, is the Exosphere. It is the layer that precedes outer space. It goes from the end of the thermosphere to 800 km from the ground. In this layer the particles detach from the gravity of planet Earth. Temperatures may reach 1,000 ° C. It is basically made up of half helium gas and half hydrogen.
In the exosphere the phenomenon of northern lights happens and also the satellites of data transmission and also space telescopes.