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Huff-Daland Airplanes Incorporated

Huff-Daland Airplanes Incorporated


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Huff-Daland Airplanes Incorporated

Huff-Daland Airplanes Incorporated was formed in 1920 by Thomas Huff and Elliot Daland, at Ogdensburg, New York. It would become a key early supplier of bombers to the US Army Air Corps, although most would be better known under the Keystone name that was adopted in 1927.

Huff-Daland’s first contract was to produce Army Training Planes, but they soon began to design bombers – their first submission to the Army Air Corps, the XLB-1, was given a 1923 serial number. Although this single engined bomber was not a great success, it was the direct predecessor of just over 200 military aircraft produced over the next ten years. Their first major success was the Huff-Daland LB-5, of which 36 were built. This was a twin-engined version of the LB-1, and set the pattern that would be maintained all the way to the final Keystone B-6A Panther. This military work allowed the company to move to a larger factory at Bristol, on the Pennsylvania railway, in 1925. Just before the company changed its name, the Huff-Daland XB-1 would become the first entry in the new unified B (Bombardment) aircraft series.

The Huff-Daland name disappeared in 1927. Huff had left the company in the previous year, and in the following year it was sold. The new owners changed the company’s name to the Keystone Aircraft Corporation. Some of their existing aircraft, amongst them the LB-5, would be developed as Huff-Daland aircraft, but produces as Keystones, and the Keystone bomber would become the standard Air Corps bomber during the early 1930s.

Amongst the company’s staff was James McDonnell, who was their main designer for a short period in 1924, before moving on to work for Consolidated.

Military Aircraft
Huff-Daland XHB-1
Huff-Daland XHB-3
Huff-Daland LB-1
Huff-Daland XLB-3
Huff-Daland XLB-5
Huff-Daland XB-1

Production Figures – Huff-Daland and Keystone


Type

New

Conversions

Total

LB-1

11

0

11

LB-3

1

0

1

LB-5

36

0

36

LB-6

17

1

18

LB-7

17

3

20

LB-8

0

1

1

LB-9

0

1

1

LB-10

0

1

1 (63 ordered as B-3A)

LB-11

0

1

1

LB-12

0

1

1

LB-13

0

0

0 (7 built as Y1B-4 and Y1B-6)

LB-14

0

0

0 (1 built as Y1B-5)

B-3

36

0

36 (27 of 63 ordered built as B-5)

B-4

25

5

30

B-5

27

3

30

B-6

39

5

44

Total

209


From 1923-1924, Huff-Daland developed the first aircraft designed for crop dusting and began selling and promoting the new service through a subsidiary Huff Daland Dusters founded on March 2, 1925. [1] Though acquisitions beginning in 1928, the dusting subsidiary became a founding component of Delta Air Lines. [2] [3] [4]

Delta Air Lines, Inc., typically referred to as Delta, is one of the major airlines of the United States and a legacy carrier. It is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline, along with its subsidiaries and regional affiliates, including Delta Connection, operates over 5,400 flights daily and serves 325 destinations in 52 countries on 6 continents. Delta is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance.

In 1927, the corporation was taken over by Hayden, Stone & Company , a New York City brokerage firm and in the course of the merger it became the Huff-Daland Division of the Keystone Aircraft Corporation. A single example of the Huff-Daland XB-1 bomber became the Keystone XB-1B, after its original Packard 2A-1500 engines were replaced with Curtiss V-1570-5 "Conqueror" engines. The Improved -B aircraft had better performance than the original, but still didn't compare favorably to the other aircraft of the period and never entered production.

Keystone Aircraft Corporation was an early pioneer in airplane manufacturing. Headquartered in Bristol, Pennsylvania, it was formed as Ogdensburg Aeroway Corp in 1920 by Thomas Huff and Elliot Daland, but its name was quickly changed to Huff-Daland Aero Corp, then to the Huff-Daland Aero Company. The company made a name for itself in agricultural aircraft, and then in the United States Army Air Corps' early bomber aircraft. From 1924, James McDonnell was the chief designer.

The Huff-Daland XB-1 was a prototype bomber aircraft built for the United States Army Air Corps.

Keystone merged with the Loening Company in 1928. By 1931, Keystone had become the Keystone Aircraft Division of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation.


Contents

The XB-1's gunnery arrangement was new for an American bomber, but it had been previously used by the British and the Germans near the end of World War I. The Army Air Corps had decided that single-engined bombers such as the XHB-1 performed more poorly and with less safety than the more traditional twin-engined bomber.

The aircraft flew for the first time in September 1927. Its original Packard engines did not provide enough power for the aircraft, and it was refitted with more powerful Curtiss Aircraft "Conqueror" engines. This new configuration was designated the XB-1B.

Three other similar aircraft designs were requested by the Army Air Corps around the same time which competed against the XB-1 for the contract. Of these three (the XB-2 Condor, the Sikorsky S-37 and the Fokker XLB-2), the Curtiss model eventually won, and only a single XB-1 was ever produced.


Contents

Early history

Delta Air Lines' history begins with the world's first aerial crop dusting operation called Huff Daland Dusters, Inc. The company was founded on March 2, 1925, in Macon, Georgia, before moving to Monroe, Louisiana, in summer 1925. [8] It flew a Huff-Daland Duster, the first true crop duster, designed to combat the boll weevil infestation of cotton crops. [9] C.E. Woolman, general manager and later Delta's first CEO, led a group of local investors to acquire the company's assets. Delta Air Service was incorporated on December 3, 1928, and named after the Mississippi Delta region. [10] [11] [12] [13]

Passenger operations began on June 17, 1929, [14] from Dallas, Texas, to Jackson, Mississippi, with stops at Shreveport and Monroe, Louisiana. By June 1930, service had extended east to Atlanta and west to Fort Worth, Texas. [15] Passenger service ceased in October 1930 when the airmail contract for the route Delta had pioneered was awarded to another airline, which purchased the assets of Delta Air Service. Local banker Travis Oliver, acting as a trustee, C.E. Woolman, and other local investors purchased back the crop-dusting assets of Delta Air Service and incorporated as Delta Air Corporation on December 31, 1930.

Delta Air Corporation secured an air mail contract in 1934, and began doing business as Delta Air Lines over Mail Route 24, stretching from Fort Worth, Texas, to Charleston, South Carolina. [15] [16] [8] Delta moved its headquarters from Monroe, Louisiana, to its current location in Atlanta in 1941. [17] The company name officially became Delta Air Lines in 1945. [18] In 1946, the company commenced regularly scheduled freight transport. In 1949, the company launched the first discounted fares between Chicago and Miami. In 1953, the company launched its first international routes after the acquisition of Chicago and Southern Air Lines. [19] In 1959, it was the first airline to fly the Douglas DC-8. In 1960, it was the first airline to fly Convair 880 jets. In 1964, it launched the Deltamatic reservation systems using computers in the IBM 7070 series. In 1965, Delta was the first airline to fly the McDonnell Douglas DC-9.

Growth and acquisitions

By 1970, Delta had an all-jet fleet, and in 1972 it acquired Northeast Airlines. Trans-Atlantic service began in 1978 with the first nonstop flights from Atlanta to London. In 1981, Delta launched a frequent-flyer program. In 1987, it acquired Western Airlines, and that same year Delta began trans-Pacific service (Atlanta-Portland, Oregon-Tokyo). In 1990, Delta was the first airline in the United States to fly McDonnell Douglas MD-11 jets. In 1991, it acquired substantially all of Pan Am's trans-Atlantic routes and the Pan Am Shuttle, rebranded as the Delta Shuttle. Delta was now the leading airline across the Atlantic. [13] [20]

In 1997, Delta was the first airline to board more than 100 million passengers in a calendar year. Also that year, Delta began an expansion of its international routes into Latin America. [21] In 2003, the company launched Song, a low-cost carrier. [13]

Bankruptcy and restructuring (2005–2007)

On September 14, 2005, the company filed for bankruptcy, citing rising fuel costs. [22] [23] [24] It emerged from bankruptcy in April 2007 after fending off a hostile takeover from US Airways and its shares were re-listed on the New York Stock Exchange. [25] [26] [27]

Acquisition of Northwest Airlines (2008–2010)

The acquisition of Northwest Airlines was announced April 14, 2008. It was approved and consummated on October 29, 2008. Northwest continued to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta until December 31, 2009, when the Northwest Airlines operating certificate was merged into that of Delta. [28] Delta completed integration with Northwest on January 31, 2010, when their computer reservations system and websites were combined, and the Northwest Airlines brand was officially retired. [29]

Destinations

Delta and its worldwide alliance partners operate more than 15,000 flights per day. [5] Delta is the only U.S. carrier that flies to Dakar, Lagos, and Stuttgart.

In March 2020, Delta suspended all flights to continental Europe for 30 days, and cutting 40% of its capacity. [30]

Hubs and Focus Cities

Delta currently has nine hubs: [5] [31]

    – Delta's hub for the Southeastern United States and its main gateway to Latin America and the Caribbean. In addition to its corporate headquarters, Delta operates its primary hub in Atlanta as well as Delta TechOps, which is Delta's primary maintenance base. [32] – Delta's secondary transatlantic hub. It offers service to destinations in Europe and North America. – One of Delta's two Midwest hubs. It is the primary Asian gateway for the Eastern United States and it also provides service to many destinations in the Americas and Europe. – Delta's secondary hub for the West Coast. It offers service to cities in Latin America, Asia, Australia, and Europe, as well as major domestic cities and West Coast regional destinations. – One of Delta's two Midwest hubs. It is the primary Canadian gateway for the airline and also serves many American metropolitan destinations, a number of regional destinations in the upper Midwest, and some select destinations in Europe and Asia. – Delta's primary transatlantic hub. The hub also offers service on many transcontinental "prestige routes" to west coast destinations such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle. – Delta's second New York hub. Delta's service at LaGuardia covers numerous East Coast U.S. cities and a number of regional destinations in the U.S. and Canada. – Delta's hub for the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Delta service covers most major U.S. destinations and a number of regional destinations in the U.S. with an emphasis on the Rocky Mountain region, as well as select destinations in Canada and Mexico and as select cities in Europe and Hawaii. – Delta's primary West Coast hub. The hub serves as an international gateway to Asia for the Western United States. Delta service also includes many major U.S. destinations as well as regional destinations in the Pacific Northwest. [33]

Delta also has one focus-city:

    - Delta’s only remaining Focus-City and is the gateway for North Carolina’s Research Triangle Park with daily services to Paris, Cancún and a variety of destinations throughout the United States. [2]

Alliance and codeshare agreements

Delta is a member of the SkyTeam alliance and has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: [34] [35]

As of December 2020 [update] , Delta operated a fleet of 750 aircraft [46] manufactured by Airbus and Boeing. [5] Delta operates the largest Boeing 717, Boeing 757, and Boeing 767 fleets in the world, and the largest Airbus A330 fleet of any US airline. Prior to its 2008 merger with Northwest Airlines, Delta's fleet was made up of solely Boeing and McDonnell Douglas aircraft. Airbus aircraft from Northwest joined the fleet after the merger, and more have since been added.

Delta often seeks to acquire and utilize older aircraft, especially narrow-bodies, and it has created an extensive MRO (maintenance, repair, and overhaul) organization, called TechOps, to support them. However, in early 2011, Delta began talks with Airbus, Boeing and Bombardier Aerospace to discuss replacing the McDonnell Douglas DC-9s, McDonnell Douglas MD-88s, and older A320 and 757-200 aircraft. [47] On August 22, 2011, Delta placed an order for 100 Boeing 737-900ER aircraft [48] and deferred an order of 100 small narrow-body jets until 2012. [49]

Delta underwent a cabin branding upgrade in 2015. [50] Availability and exact details vary by route and aircraft type.

Delta One is the airline's premier business class product, available on long haul international flights, as well as transcontinental service from New York JFK to Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle/Tacoma. [50]

Delta One features lie-flat seating on all aircraft types, and direct aisle access from every seat on all types except the Boeing 757-200 (in which only a special sub-fleet of approximately 20 aircraft feature lie-flats). [51] The Boeing 767-300ER and Boeing 767-400ER seats, designed by James Thompson, feature a space-saving design whereby the seats are staggered such that when in the fully flat position, the foot of each bed extends under the armrests of the seat in front of it. Delta One cabins on the Boeing 777-200ER/LR fleet are configured in a herringbone layout, while Airbus A330 cabins (featuring the Cirrus flat-bed sleeper suite by Zodiac Seats U.S.) are configured in a reverse herringbone pattern. [52]

All seats are also equipped with a personal, on demand in-flight-entertainment (IFE) system, universal power-ports, a movable reading light, and a folding work table. Passengers also receive complimentary chef-curated meals, refreshments, alcoholic beverages, a Tumi Inc. amenity kit, premium bedding, and pre-flight Sky Club access. [53]

In August 2016, Delta announced the introduction of Delta One Suites on select widebody fleets. The suites will feature a door to the aisle for enhanced privacy, as well as improved storage space, a larger IFE screen, and updated design. The suites rolled out on the Airbus A350 fleet, first delivered in July 2017, followed by installation within the Boeing 777 fleet. [54] [55]

In April 2016, Delta CEO Ed Bastian announced that a new Premium Economy cabin will be added. Since renamed to Premium Select, this cabin will feature extra legroom adjustable leg rests extra seat pitch, width, and recline and a new premium service. Delta introduced it on its new Airbus A350, first delivered in fall 2017, to be followed by the Boeing 777. [56] In October 2018, Delta announced that it would be selling first class seats on domestically configured Boeing 757 aircraft flying transatlantic routes as Premium Select. [57]

First Class is offered on mainline domestic flights (except those featuring Delta One service), select short- and medium-haul international flights, and Delta Connection aircraft with more than 50 seats. Seats range from 18.5 to 20.75 inches (47.0 to 52.7 cm) wide and have between 37 and 40 inches (94 and 102 cm) of pitch. Passengers in this class receive a wider variety of free snacks compared to Main Cabin, as well as free drinks and alcohol, and full meal service on flights 900 miles (1,400 km) and longer. Certain aircraft also feature power ports at each seat and free entertainment products from Delta Studio. First Class passengers are also eligible for priority boarding. [53]

Delta Comfort+ seats are installed on all aircraft excluding Delta's new A350s and feature 34–36 inches (860–910 mm) of pitch on all Delta One configured aircraft, 35–36 inches (890–910 mm) of pitch and 50 percent more recline over standard Main Cabin seats. [58] Additional amenities include: Sky Priority Boarding, dedicated overhead space, complimentary beer, wine, and spirits on flights 250 miles (400 km) or more, and complimentary premium snacks on flights 900 miles (1,400 km) or more. Complimentary premium entertainment is available via Delta Studio, with free headsets available on most flights. [53] On transcontinental flights between JFK-LAX/SFO, Delta Comfort+ passengers also get Luvo snack wraps. Medallion members can upgrade from Main Cabin to Comfort+ for free, while other customers can upgrade for a fee or with SkyMiles. [59]

Main Cabin (Economy Class) is available on all aircraft with seats ranging from 17 to 18 inches (43 to 46 cm) wide and 30 to 33 inches (76 to 84 cm) of pitch. The main cabin on Boeing 737, 777, and selected Boeing 757-200 and 767-300 aircraft have an articulating seat bottom where the seat bottom moves forward in addition to the seat back tilting backwards when reclining. [ citation needed ] [60]

Main Cabin passengers receive complimentary snacks and non-alcoholic drinks on all flights 250 miles (400 km) or longer. Alcoholic beverages are also available for purchase. Complimentary meals and alcoholic drinks are provided on long-haul international flights as well as selected transcontinental domestic flights, such as between New York–JFK and Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego. [61] [62] As part of Delta's Flight Fuel buy on board program, meals are available for purchase on other North American flights 900 miles (1,400 km) or longer. [61]

Delta operated a different buy on board program between 2003 and 2005. [63] [64] The previous program had items from differing providers, depending on the origin and destination of the flight. [65] [66] Prices ranged up to $10 ($13.7 when adjusted for inflation). The airline started the service on a few selected flights in July 2003, and the meal service was initially offered on 400 flights. [67] Delta ended this buy on board program in 2005 instead, Delta began offering snacks at no extra charge on flights over 90 minutes to most U.S. domestic flights and some flights to the Caribbean and Latin America. Beginning in mid-March 2005 the airline planned to stop providing pillows on flights within the 48 contiguous U.S. states, Bermuda, Canada, the Caribbean, and Central America. In addition, the airline increased the price of alcoholic beverages on Delta mainline flights from $4 ($5.3 when adjusted for inflation) to $5 ($6.63 when adjusted for inflation) the increase in alcohol prices did not occur on Song flights. [67]

Basic Economy is a basic version of Main Cabin, offering the same services with fewer flexibility options for a lower price. [50] Examples of fewer flexibility options include no ticket changes, no paid or complimentary upgrades regardless of frequent-flier status, and only having a seat assigned at check-in. [68]

SkyMiles

SkyMiles is the frequent flyer program for Delta Air Lines. Miles do not expire but accounts may be deactivated by Delta in certain cases, such as the death of a program member or fraudulent activity. [69]

Delta Sky Club

Delta Sky Club is the branding name of Delta's airport lounges. Membership is available through an annual membership that can be purchased with either money or miles. International passengers traveling in Delta One class get free access. Membership can also be granted through top-level Delta status or by being an American Express cardholder with certain exceptions. As of January 2019, Delta no longer offers single day passes. [70]

Originally, Delta's membership-based airport clubs were called Crown Room lounges, with Northwest's called WorldClubs.

City Notes Refs
Atlanta 9 locations [71]
Austin 1 location [71]
Boston 2 locations [71]
Chicago 1 location [71]
Cincinnati 1 location [71]
Dallas/Fort Worth 1 location [71]
Denver 1 location [71]
Detroit 4 locations [71]
Fort Lauderdale 1 location [71]
Honolulu 1 location [71]
Indianapolis 1 location [71]
Jacksonville, Florida 1 location [71]
Los Angeles 1 location [71]
Memphis 1 location [71]
Miami 1 location [71]
Milwaukee 1 location [71]
Minneapolis/St. Paul 2 locations [71]
Nashville 1 location [71]
New Orleans 1 location [71]
New York-JFK 2 locations [71]
New York-LaGuardia 2 locations [71]
Newark 1 location [71]
Orlando 1 location [71]
Philadelphia 1 location [71]
Phoenix-Sky Harbor 1 location [71]
Portland, OR 1 location [71]
Raleigh/Durham 1 location [71]
Salt Lake City 1 location, largest sky club [72]
San Diego 1 location [71]
San Francisco 1 location [71]
Seattle/Tacoma 2 locations [71]
Tampa 1 location [71]
Washington-National 1 location [71]
West Palm Beach 1 location [71]

SkyBonus

On November 27, 2001, Delta Air Lines launched SkyBonus, [73] a program aimed toward small-to-medium businesses spending between $5,000 and $500,000 annually on air travel. [74] Businesses can earn points toward free travel and upgrades, as well as Sky Club memberships and SkyMiles Silver Medallion status. Points are earned on paid travel based on a variety of fare amount paid, booking code, and place origin or destination. [75] While enrolled businesses are able to earn points toward free travel, the travelling passenger is still eligible to earn SkyMiles during his or her travel. [75]

In early 2010, Delta Air Lines merged its SkyBonus program with Northwest's similar Biz Perks program. [75]

Finances

For the fiscal year 2018, Delta Air Lines reported earnings of US$5.1 billion, with an annual revenue of US$44.438 billion, an increase of 8.02% over the previous fiscal cycle. Its shares traded at over $48 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$39.182 billion in April 2019. [76]

Financial information for Delta, by year
Year Revenue
in mil. USD$
Net income
in mil. USD$
Total assets
in mil. USD$
Price per share
in USD$
Employees Refs.
2005 16,480 −3,836 20,039 [77]
2006 17,532 −6,205 19,622 [78]
2007 19,154 1,612 32,423 [79]
2008 22,697 −8,922 45,084 8.76 [80]
2009 28,063 −1,237 43,789 6.97 [81]
2010 31,755 593 43,188 11.66 [82]
2011 35,115 854 43,499 8.59 [83]
2012 36,670 1,009 44,550 9.321 [84]
2013 37,773 10,540 52,252 18.53 78,000 [85]
2014 40,362 659 54,005 35.12 80,000 [86]
2015 40,704 4,526 53,134 43.42 83,000 [87]
2016 39,639 4,373 51,261 41.11 84,000 [88]
2017 41,244 3,577 53,292 48.52 87,000 [89]
2018 44,438 3,935 60,270 47.83 89,000 [90] [91]
2019 44,007 4,767 64,532 91,000 [92]

Personnel

Between its mainline operation and subsidiaries, and as of March 2015, Delta employs nearly 80,000 people. [5] Ed Bastian is the current Chief Executive Officer and has served in this position since May 2, 2016. [93] Joanne Smith is Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer responsible for the oversight and support of personnel needs at Delta. She was appointed on October 1, 2014, replacing Mike Campbell. [94]

Delta's 14,500 mainline pilots are represented by the Air Line Pilots Association, International and are the union's largest pilot group. [95] [96] The company's approximately 180 flight dispatchers are represented by the Professional Airline Flight Control Association (PAFCA). [97] Not counting the pilots and flight dispatchers, Delta is the only one of the five largest airlines in the United States, and one of only two in the top 9 (the other being JetBlue), whose non-pilot USA domestic staff is entirely non-union. [95] In August 2020, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, Delta Air Lines announced that it would be cutting 1,941 pilot job positions if it could not conclude a cost reduction deal with its union. [98] In January 2021, Delta said that, thanks to the federal support, it will be able to bring back 400 pilots in full time. [99]

Delta Global Staffing

Delta Global Staffing (DGS) was a temporary employment firm located in Atlanta, Georgia. Delta Global Staffing was a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta Air Lines, Inc. and a division of the internal company DAL Global Services.

Delta Air Lines sold majority ownership of DAL Global Services to Argenbright Holdings on December 21, 2018. As part of the sale, Delta dissolved the staffing division of DGS. [100]

It was founded in 1995 as a provider of temporary staffing for Delta primarily in Atlanta. DGS has since expanded to include customers and businesses outside the airline and aviation industries. DGS now supports customers in major US metropolitan areas.

Delta Global Staffing provided contract workers for short and long term assignments, VMS partnering, VOP on-site management, temp-to-hire, direct placements, and payroll services. DGS services markets such as call centers, customer services and administrative placements, IT & professional recruiting, logistics, finance & accounting, hospitality, and aviation/airline industry. [101]

Headquarters and offices

Delta's corporate headquarters is located on a corporate campus on the northern boundary of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, within the city limits of Atlanta. [102] [103] [104] This location has served as Delta's headquarters since 1941, when the company relocated its corporate offices from Monroe, Louisiana to Greater Atlanta. [105] [106] The crop dusting division of Delta remained headquartered in Monroe until Delta ceased crop dusting in 1966. [13] Before 1981, the Delta corporate campus, an 80-acre (32 ha) plot of land in proximity to the old Hartsfield Airport terminal, was outside the City of Atlanta limits in unincorporated Fulton County. On August 3, 1981, the Atlanta City Council approved the annexation of 141 acres (57 ha) of land, an area containing the Delta headquarters. As of 1981 Delta would have had to begin paying $200,000 annually to the City of Atlanta in taxes. In September 1981, the airline sued the city, challenging the annexation on the basis of the constitutionality of the 1960 City of Atlanta annexation of the Hartsfield old terminal. [107] The City of Atlanta was only permitted to annex areas that are adjacent to areas already in the Atlanta city limits. [107]

In addition to hosting Delta's corporate headquarters, Hartsfield-Jackson is also the home of Delta TechOps, the airline's primary maintenance, repair, and overhaul arm and the largest full-service airline MRO in North America, specializing in engines, components, airframe, and line maintenance. [108]

Delta maintains a large presence in the Twin Cities, with over 12,000 employees [109] in the region as well as significant corporate support functions housed in the Minneapolis area, including the company's information technology divisional offices. [110]

Corporate identity

Delta's logo, often called the "widget", was originally unveiled in 1959. Its triangle shape is taken from the Greek letter delta, and recalls the airline's origins in the Mississippi Delta. [111] It is also said to be reminiscent of the swept-wing design of the DC-8, Delta's first jet aircraft. [112]

Delta's current livery is called "Upward & Onward". It features a white fuselage with the company's name in blue lettering and a widget on the vertical stabilizer. Delta introduced its current livery in 2007 as part of a re-branding after it emerged from bankruptcy. The new livery consists of four colors, while the old one (called "colors in motion") used eight. This meant the switch saved the airline money by removing one day from each aircraft's painting cycle. The airline took four years to repaint all of its aircraft into the current scheme, including aircraft inherited from Northwest Airlines. [111]

Environmental initiatives

In 2008, Delta Air Lines was given an award from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Design for the Environment (DfE) program for its use of PreKote, a more environmentally friendly, non-hexavalent chromium surface pretreatment on its aircraft, replacing hazardous chemicals formerly used to improve paint adhesion and prevent corrosion. In addition, PreKote reduces water usage by two-thirds and reduces wastewater treatment.

PreKote is also saving money by reducing the time needed to paint each airplane. With time savings of eight to ten percent, it will save an estimated more than $1 million annually. [113]

Deltalina

As part of the re-branding project, a safety video featuring a flight attendant showed up on YouTube in early 2008, getting over 1 million views and the attention of news outlets, specifically for the video's tone mixed with the serious safety message. The flight attendant, Katherine Lee, was dubbed "Deltalina" by a member of FlyerTalk for her resemblance to Angelina Jolie. [114] [115] Delta had considered several styles for its current safety video, including animation, before opting for a video presenting a flight attendant speaking to the audience. The video was filmed on a former Song Airlines Boeing 757-200. [116]

The following are major accidents and incidents that occurred on Delta mainline aircraft. For Northwest Airlines incidents, see Northwest Airlines accidents and incidents. For Delta Connection incidents, see Delta Connection incidents and accidents.

  • The attempted bombing of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on December 25, 2009, occurred four days before the operating certificates of Northwest and Delta were combined (December 31, 2009). The aircraft involved in the incident was in Delta livery and reported in some early news reports as "Delta Flight 253". [148]

Hijackings

There have been over a dozen attempted hijackings that resulted in no injuries and the surrender of the often lone hijacker. These incidents are not included. The following are notable hijackings because of fatalities or success in forcing the aircraft to fly to another country:


Huff-Daland Petrel

There is no text information for this aircraft at the moment.

The first plane to be designed and built specifically for crop dusting the Petrel was colloquially known as the "Puffer" and was produced to satisfy a demand to eradicate the boll weevil from the cotton fields of the American south. Flying for the first time in 1924 it was also used in Mexico and Peru.

Power plant 1 x 400 h.p Liberty 12

Span 33'3" Length 23'1" Height 8'4"
Maximum take off weight 5,250 lb

Max speed 112 mph Cruising (dusting) speed 85 mph

That picture is fron de Argentinian Navy, where this airplane flew on service.

Bill, UNTRUE, they moved the shareholder meetings from Monroe to NYC about 12-15 years ago.

Ron, Not entirely true, here is a brief history of Delta.

Formed as Huff Daland Dusters, Incorporated, an aerial crop dusting operation, on May 30, 1924 in Macon, Georgia, the company moved to Monroe, Louisiana, in 1925 and began acting as a passenger airline in the late 1920s. Collett E. Woolman purchased the company on September 13, 1928, and renamed it Delta Air Service, with headquarters in Monroe.[11] In the ensuing decades, Delta grew through the addition of routes and the acquisition of other airlines. It transitioned from propeller planes to jets in the 1970s, and entered international competition to Europe in the 1970s and across the Pacific in the 1980s.

I use to walk under the Duster everyday to go to work, it has since been moved from our Tech Ops division to the hanger at the corporate offices along with the Travel Air and a Boeing 767 the employees bought back in 1982 named the Spirit of Delta.

Bill, UNTRUE, they moved the shareholder meetings from Monroe to NYC about 12-15 years ago.

Ron, Not entirely true, here is a brief history of Delta.

Formed as Huff Daland Dusters, Incorporated, an aerial crop dusting operation, on May 30, 1924 in Macon, Georgia, the company moved to Monroe, Louisiana, in 1925 and began acting as a passenger airline in the late 1920s. Collett E. Woolman purchased the company on September 13, 1928, and renamed it Delta Air Service, with headquarters in Monroe.[11] In the ensuing decades, Delta grew through the addition of routes and the acquisition of other airlines. It transitioned from propeller planes to jets in the 1970s, and entered international competition to Europe in the 1970s and across the Pacific in the 1980s.

I use to walk under the Duster everyday to go to work, it has since been moved from our Tech Ops division to the hanger at the corporate offices along with the Travel Air and a Boeing 767 the employees bought back in 1982 named the Spirit of Delta.

Go to Google, Type in (Travelair 4000 Holdcom,s Aerodrome)Check out the 4000.I have a picture of one converted to a duster, it made a forced landing in a cotton field, shows some damage.HLK

I have heard to story for years that one of my Daddy's relationship's was in partners with the man that went on to begin Delta. Does anyone possibly remember those days or who it might have been. thanks

The Plane pictured above was not like the Huff Deland I flew,I have pictures of that one and it has a distinctive readable triangular Delta insignia on the side of the fuselage. The one above appears to be more like what we called a dog eared Travelair because of the extended top ailerons. I believe it,s designation was a Travelair 4000. HLK

I Have several pictures of the Deltas Huff Deland Airplanes including one that crashed and burned on take off.near the range line road west of Delray Beach Fla in 1947 or 1948. I was flying for a competitor company at that time but was able to sneak flight in a (Huffer)through a good friend.It was a very good duster with exceptionally short lower wings and with no vertical stabilizer at the rudder position. The engine had been changed from the original Wright J5 or J6 to a Continental 220Hp W670. I was flying Stearman dusters at the time and it was a mutual swap for comparison. I am more than 85 yrs old and now enjoy flying a newly redone Aeronca 7AC Champ HLK

Delta Air Lines has a restored Huff-Daland duster in their museum in Atlanta, Ga. Delta retained parts from their duster fleet and restored the aircraft from those parts. There was a mechanic from the Dusting Divison that oversaw the restoration.

Huff-Dalland became DELTA Airlines. Starting in West Monroe, LA. H-D designd and built the first purpose built duster airframes and they morphed into DELTA. I had a friend over 30 years ago who was a very senior DELTA stretch DC-8 Captain who recalled being furloughed to H-D for his first few Summers to dust, returning to the line in the Fall until he'd developed enough seniority to remain as a line pilot full time.
H-D designed and built quite a few duster types. Up until the merger with NWA, the annual shareholders meetings for DLA were held in a store front in West Monroe, LA.

Delta Air Lines beegan in Louisiana, in 1925, as a crop dusting company, using Huff-Deland Crop Dusters. The same plane shown above. I have a set of Delta commerative aircraft sketches with the HD shown above.


Huff-Daland

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Huff-Daland was an American aircraft manufacturer. Formed as Ogdensburg Aeroway Corp in 1920 in Ogdensburg, New York by Thomas Huff and Elliot Daland, its name was quickly changed to Huff-Daland Aero Corp and then in 1925 it was changed again to Huff-Daland Aero Company with its main headquarters in Bristol, Pennsylvania. Huff-Daland produced a series of biplanes as trainers, observation planes, and light bombers for the U.S. Army and Navy.

From 1923-1924, Huff-Daland developed the first aircraft designed for crop dusting and began selling and promoting the new service through a subsidiary Huff Daland Dusters founded on March 2, 1925. Ώ] Though acquisitions beginning in 1928, the dusting subsidiary became a founding component of Delta Air Lines. ΐ] Α] Β]

In 1927, the corporation was taken over by Hayden, Stone & Company, a New York City brokerage firm and in the course of the merger it became the Huff-Daland Division of the Keystone Aircraft Corporation. A single example of the Huff-Daland XB-1 bomber became the Keystone XB-1B, after its original Packard 2A-1500 engines were replaced with Curtiss V-1570-5 "Conqueror" engines. The Improved -B aircraft had better performance than the original, but still didn't compare favorably to the other aircraft of the period and never entered production.

Keystone merged with the Loening Company in 1928. By 1931, Keystone had become the Keystone Aircraft Division of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation.


Archive Record

Working from Huff Daland Airplanes' original plans, this set was revised, drawn and traced by H.E. "Herb" Dickard, Jr. an engineering student, in June-July 1936. He worked with Delta in Monroe for several years, daily during the summers and on Saturdays while attending school.

In a letter to his son, H.E. Dickard, III, dated October 1991 (Delta Flight Museum Accession 1998.3), Herb Dickard recalled that Delta had acquired the patents to the Huff Daland Duster and intended to build more of the aircraft for its growing crop-dusting operations. Delta's original set of plans had been destroyed by rodents and were unusable. He was asked by Delta General Manager C.E. Woolman to draw to scale the Huff Daland Duster and create a new set of plans.

Herb Dickard recalled that ten people built the three new crop dusters "from scratch" in 1936-1937, while maintaining the other airplanes in Delta's fleet. The new crop dusters did not have a known airplane factory name, but Delta General Manager C. E. Woolman worked things out with the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA, now the FAA) by declaring the aircraft as experimental.

Blueprints:
A. Huff Daland Petrel Lower Wing Layout, Drawing No. 101, Sheet No. 1, dated 6/6/1936. Dimensions: 65" 36" Scale 3 inches = 1 foot.

B. Huff Daland Petrel Fuselage, Drawing No. 102, Sheet No. 2, dated 6/19/1936. Dimensions: 62" x 36" Scale: 3 inches = 1 foot. Outer edges slightly brittle, some rust damage.

C. Huff Daland Petrel Upper Wing Layout, Drawing No. 103, Sheet No.3, Date 7/6/1936. Dimensions: 65" x 36" Scale 3 inches = 1 foot. Outer edge has marking and holes from rust damage - most extensive damage of the set.

D. Huff Daland Petrel Tail Surfaces, Drawing No. 104, Sheet No. 4, Date 7/11/1936. Dimensions: 64" x 36" Scale 3 inches = 1 foot.


Huff-Daland TW-5

The Huff-Daland Type XV Training Water-Cooled TW-5 was a biplane trainer designed by the Huff-Daland Aero Corporation in the early 1920s for the United States Army Air Service.

TW-5
AT-1s
Role Trainer
Manufacturer Huff-Daland
Primary users United States Army Air Service
United States Navy
Produced 1923
Number built 26


Four "Caterpillars" and a funeral documents on the crash of the Huff-Daland XLB-5.

Aircraft accidents were relatively common during the early days of military aviation. And while most were a flying version of "fender benders," many resulted in the destruction of an aircraft and often a loss of life. Following World War I, the U.S. Army Air Service and its successor, the Air Corps, adopted a formal system of aircraft accident investigation and reporting to improve flying safety. As a result, today the U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency (AFHRA) at Maxwell Air Force Base (AFB), Alabama, maintains an extensive collection of accident reports from prior to World War II. This collection is one of the least known, most useful, and all-too-often ignored sources of information on early army aviation. Most of the reports comprise standard forms that record the basic facts of an accident, including the date, time, location, aircraft, individuals involved, and damage. Photographs, technical data, the pilot's record, and other pertinent material may also be part of the record. When a death occurre d, the report is usually more extensive and may include testimony, orders, letters, and messages.

Such is the case of the report on the crash of the Huff-Daland XLB--5 "Pirate" and death of Pvt. Daniel Leroy Yeager near Reynoldsburg, Ohio, on May 28, 1927. (1) This accident is intrinsically interesting for at least two reasons. First, when four members of the crew jumped from the aircraft, they became the greatest number of airmen saved by parachute during a single incident since the Air Service had mandated the use of that device in 1922. On October 20, of that year, 1st Lt. Harold R. Harris became the first Air Service pilot to use a parachute successfully Subsequently, two Dayton newsmen, Morris Hutton and Verne Timmerman and an Engineering Division employee, M. H. St. Clair, from McCook Field, established an unofficial association, the "Caterpillar Club." The name symbolized that parachutes were made of silk, and also that a caterpillar spins a cocoon, crawls out and flies away from certain death. Members of the club received a certificate, and several parachute manufacturers, especially the Irving Ai r Chute Company, also presented them with gold or silver "caterpillar pins." With the crash of the XLB--5, the roster of the Caterpillar Club expanded significantly. (2)

Second, one of the men who jumped from the XLB--5 was Maj. Lewis Hyde Brereton, commander of the 2d Bombardment Group (BG), based at Langley Field, Virginia. Brereton was one of the U.S. Army's pioneer aviators, a decorated combat veteran of World War I, and an officer with considerable operational and staff experience. As will be seen, the accident occurred at a critical juncture in his career, but he would survive the event and go on to become a lieutenant general during World War II, serve in most of the theaters of the war, and participate in several of the most controversial operations of that conflict. Beyond the accident itself, the report provides a good picture of some U.S. Army Air Corps practices related to inspection, maintenance, and accident evaluation in the late 1920s.

The XLB--5, Air Corps serial number 26-208, was one of a series of single- and twin-engine biplane bombers designed and built by Huff, Daland and Company, Incorporated, of Bristol, Pennsylvania, beginning with the XLB--1 in 1923. In March 1927, Huff-Daland became the Keystone Aircraft Corporation, and the U.S. Army ultimately purchased some 250 aircraft from the company through 1932. Almost all of its bombers were conventional, cloth-covered biplanes not much different in design or performance from those that had flown during World War I. A tangle of drag-inducing strut-and-wire external bracing and what appears to the modern eye to be a total disinterest in streamlining seem to have been the most prominent characteristics of the type. The Air Corps accepted the XLB--5--identifiable by its single vertical stabilizer and rudder--on November 12, 1926. Subsequently, the Air Corps bought ten, designated as the LB--5, which had two additional "stabilizing rudders" above the horizontal stabilizer in line with the s lipstream of the engines, giving it the appearance of having three vertical tails. And later, the Air Corps purchased thirty-five of a variant, the LB--5A, which sported the twin vertical tails standard on army bombers of the day. (3) Two water-cooled 420-hp Liberty V--1650--3 engines gave the XLB--5 a top speed of 113 mph. The United States had produced over 20,000 Liberties during World War I. Noted for its reliability, the Liberty powered a variety of larger Air Service aircraft following the war, but was coming to the end of its service life by 1927. (4)

The XLB--5 was one of twenty-eight bombers from the 2d BG that participated in the annual Air Corps maneuvers, held near San Antonio, Texas, in May 1927. Army aviation had begun conducting large-scale annual maneuvers in 1925, to allow operational training and test organization, equipment, tactics, and logistics under field conditions. The maneuvers held between May 15 and 19, featured a field army under Maj. Gen. Ernest Hinds maneuvering against a simulated enemy force. The Air Corps assembled some 108 airplanes and an airship under the Deputy Commander of the Air Corps, Brig. Gen. James E. Fechet. Major Brereton personally led ten of the bombers--six Martin NBS--1s, a Curtiss NBS--4, a Martin MB--2, a DeHavilland DH-4M-2P, and the XLB-5--to Texas. On May 2, the flight stopped at Wright Field outside Dayton, Ohio, (5) while the XLB--5 landed at nearby McCook Field, home of the Air Corps's Materiel Division. At MeCook, engineering personnel modified the blades of the XLB--5's Standard Steel Company metal prop ellers, thinning them toward the hub to provide a more consistent taper in place of the more radical taper of the stock propeller that the engineers considered susceptible to failure. They also scrutinized the blades for hairline cracks, finding none. The flight then proceeded to Texas.

Second Lt. Bernard A. Bridget piloted the XLB--5 on the return trip to Langley. A private in the Ambulance Service during World War I, Bridget had become involved in aviation long after the war, graduating from the Air Service Primary Flying School in 1924, and the Advanced Flying School Bombardment Course in 1926. (6) Despite Bridget's relative lack of time in the air, Brereton thought highly of his flying ability. In addition to Brereton, the other passengers on the ill-fated flight included two veteran Air Corps enlisted personnel, MSgt. Clyde M. Taylor and SSgt. Fred D. Miller, and a nineteen-year-old novice on his first cross-country mission, Private Yeager. (7)

The original orders directed the XLB--5 to return to Langley across Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, and the Carolinas. For reasons not in the record, however, Brereton requested a northern route that would take the aircraft to Langley by way of McCook Field and Bolling Field outside Washington, D.C. The initial leg of the journey to Ohio was uneventful. During the stop at McCook, two civilian inspectors, H. H. Barb and George Holland, examined the XLB--5's welded joints and attachment plates, inspected the control system and landing gear, and checked the crank shaft of both engines for excessive play They signed off on the aircraft on the afternoon of May 27, and the XLB--5 resumed its trip the next morning. Bridget occupied the pilot's position on the right side of the center cockpit Brereton sat on his left. The two sergeants took stations in the rear gunner's position, where Miller operated the radio. Yeager sat by himself in the gunner's position in the nose.

Shortly afterward, the XLB--5 reached Norton Field, about seven miles east of Columbus, Ohio. Not to be confused with modern-day Norton AFB, California, Norton Field in 1927 was aviation headquarters for the U.S. Army's V Corps Area and a reserve aerodrome capable of servicing transient aircraft. (8) As he passed over the field, Bridget noticed that the right engine had suddenly lost about 300 rpm. Concerned, he turned around and landed. The suspect engine cut out after the aircraft reached the ground. While the officers and crew had lunch, Norton mechanics discovered an ignition problem: the brushes were worn out and the rotor "chewed up a bit," in Bridget's words. Following repairs, the bomber was refueled, and Bridget started the engines. While running up the right motor, he noticed that the shaft appeared to rotate slightly in what he described later as "a conical plane." This abnormality appears not to have deterred the lieutenant. He took off and, the XLB--5 soon reached an altitude of between 1,000 an d 1,200 feet. Over Reynoldsburg, ten miles east of Columbus, Bridget heard a sharp explosion. A blade of the right propeller broke off--it was found later about two miles from the main crash site--and the engine literally tore itself apart, spraying the aircraft with shrapnel. One piece hit Bridget on the right leg another may have hit Yeager. There was little time to think. Brereton went over the left side of the fuselage. Taylor went over the right side, followed by Miller, whose radio helmet delayed his departure. The injured Bridget found that the XLB--5's controls would not respond, and when he tried to retard the throttle of the remaining engine, the aircraft seemed to fall faster. He increased power, then scrambled over the side of the fuselage. As he exited the cockpit, Bridget saw Yeager look at him. Thinking the private either stunned or afraid, Bridget yelled at him to jump, then took to his parachute.

Brereton, Taylor, and Miller landed safely Bridget's canopy barely had time to open, however, and he hit the roof of a small church in Reynoldsburg, injuring his back. The XLB--5 crashed in a nearby field. Leaving the incapacitated pilot in the care of a local doctor, Brereton, Taylor, and Miller reached the crash site some ten to twenty minutes after the airplane hit. They found Yeager dead, lying half-out of the fuselage. Miller made some effort to extricate the body, but the wreckage was saturated with gasoline. A few minutes later, it unexpectedly exploded in a ball of fire that reduced the structure to a few charred pieces and burned Yeager's body beyond recognition.

A doctor, ambulance, and contingent of troops from nearby Fort Hayes under 2d Lt. John R. McGuiness reached the crash site about an hour after the accident. Brereton asked that a truck be sent from Fort Hayes to move the wreckage to Norton Field. He and Miller then flew to McCook Field, followed later by Taylor, who had remained behind to guard the wreck. The soldiers took Bridget to the post hospital at Fort Hayes. An accident board met at McCook Field on May 29 and examined Brereton, Taylor, and Miller. It completed its work on May 31 by taking the testimony of the injured pilot in the Fort Hayes hospital. The board members concluded that the accident was caused by a catastrophic failure of the propeller of the right engine and that Yeager had died when the aircraft crashed. The board recommended that the propeller blade be thoroughly analyzed to determine why it had broken.

The Standard Steel Propeller Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, had begun producing forged duralumin propellers in the early 1920s and by 1927 was manufacturing all-metal, adjustable-pitch propellers for civilian and military use. Charles Lindbergh's "Spirit of St. Louis" was equipped with a Standard Steel prop. In 1929, the Hamilton Aero Manufacturing Company and Standard Steel Propeller Company combined to form the Hamilton Standard Propeller Corporation, the largest producer of propellers in the world at that time. The company won the Collier Trophy in 1933 for a controllable-pitch propeller patented in 1927. (9)

Efforts to locate a report of a test of the propeller blade that failed on the XLB-5 proved unsuccessful. The National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., maintains Wright Field technical data and reports from the period at its Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility in Silver Hill, Maryland. A thorough survey of the card catalog yielded nine index cards listing reports on tests of Standard Company propellers between 1925 and the end of 1927. None, however, concerned the Huff-Daland XLB-5 crash. Unfortunately, only two of the reports listed on the cards were actually in the archival files. One, however, is relevant. In December 1926, engineers tested a Standard Steel Propeller Company forged duralumin propeller from a Huff-Daland XLB-1 that had failed at the junction of the hub and blade after thirty-four hours flying time and ten hours on a test stand. The Material Section reported that the hardness, and chemical composition of the blade met Air Corps specifications. The engineer s also found minute surface cracks near the hub, but concluded that they were superficial and probably played no role in the blade failure. They did, however, discover that the tensile strength of the longitudinal specimens was "decidedly erratic." The tensile strength of samples from the hub met Air Corps specifications the tensile strength of samples taken from the blade, however, was below specifications. (10)

The crash of the Huff-Daland came at a critical time in Maj. Lewis Brereton's career. By early 1927, a failing marriage and heavy drinking had affected his nerves, and in February, three months before the accident, he had requested sick leave so that he could consult with a specialist. Subsequently, on April 7, he was at the controls of a Huff-Daland LB-1 when engine failure caused it to crash land at Langley Field just after takeoff. A near collision with another airplane at Little Rock, Arkansas, the crash of the XLB-5, and a formal reprimand in June--for an incident during which he failed to follow orders--followed in quick succession. The crash of the XLB-5 was, thus, one episode in a chain of events that contributed significantly to Brereton's condition. Under severe stress-diagnosed at Langley as "beginning fear of flying"--Brereton removed himself from flight status and spent two months undergoing treatment by one of New York City's leading psychoanalysts. Subsequently, the major recovered fully, retu rned to flying status, and resumed his career. At the beginning of World War II, Major General Brereton was the commander of Far East Air Force (FEAF) in the Philippines. He subsequently served as deputy air commander of the American-British Dutch-Australia Command (ABDACOM) in Java, commander of Tenth Air Force in India, commander of Ninth Air Force in North Africa and Europe, and commander of First Allied Airborne Army He thus participated in such controversial episodes as the defeat of FEAF and ABDACOM Operation Tidal Wave, the low-level attack on the Ploesti oil refineries Operation Cobra, the breakout from Normandy and Operation Market-Garden, the airborne assault in Holland. (11)

(1.) Crash of Huff-Daland XLB-5," May 28, 1927, Aircraft Accident and Incident Reports, 200.3912-1, Air Force Historical Research Agency (AFHRA), Maxwell AFB, Alabama. "Pirate" was the company nickname for the airplane the Air Corps never adopted it officially

(2.) Maurer Maurer, Aviation in the US. Army, 1919-1939 (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1987), pp. 163-64 Mark S. Barbour, "The Caterpillar Club's Aviation History of Central New York State," website, www.home.tweny.rr.com/caterpillarclub/irvin/irvin.htm, May 3, 2001.

(3.) Janes All the World's Aircraft, 1928, pp. 230-31 Maurer, Aviation in the US. Army, pp. 214-15 Huff-Daland XLB-5," USAF Museum Virtual Aircraft Gallery," U.S. Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AEB, Ohio, www.wpafb.af.mil.museum/research/bombers/b119.htm May 3, 2001 "Huff-Daland XLB-5," Joe Baugher's Encyclopedia of American Military Aircraft, www.home.att.net/

jbaugher2/lb5.html May 3, 2001. The first Huff-Daland accepted by the Army was the TA-2, a single-engine training aircraft, three of which were purchased in 1920.

(4.) I. B. Holley, Jr., Ideas and Weapons, New Imprint (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1983), pp. 119-22, 124 "Liberty 12-A Engine," U.S. Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/engines/eng28.htm May 2, 2001.

(5.) "Wright Field, Ohio," Air Corps News Letter, May 14, 1927, p. 155 "The Joint Maneuvers at San Antonio," Air Corps News Letter, June 8, 1927, pp. 156-59 Maurer, Aviation in the US. Army, p. 239.

(6.) U.S. Army Register, for appropriate years.

(7.) This account of the accident is based upon the official report and the account in Don Glassman, JUMP: Tales of the Caterpillar Club (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1930), pp. 138-48. The incident is also mentioned in "Caterpillar Club Mounting in Membership," Air Corps News Letter, June 8, 1927, pp. 127-28.

(8.) Airport Directory Continental United States, 3 vols. (Washington, DC: Army Air Force's Aeronautical Chart Service, n.d.), III, p. 56 "Norton Field, Columbus, Ohio," Air Corps News Letter, June 8, 1927, p. 118 Maurer, Aviation in the US. Army, pp. 242, 244.

(9.) Aircraft Year Book, 1928 (New York: Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce, 1928), p. 312 Hamilton Sundstrand Division, United Technologies website, www.hamiltonsundstrandcorp.comAbout.History.htm May 9, 2001.

(10.) Material Section Report, "Duralumin Propeller--Drawing No. X-52352 for XLB-1 Airplane," December 27, 1926, D52.43/730, Archives, Paul E. Garber Facility, National Air and Space Museum, Silver Springs, Maryland.

(11.) Roger G. Miller, "'A Pretty Damn Able Commander': Lewis Hyde Brereton, Part I," Air Power History (Winter, 2000), pp. 4-27 Part II," Air Power History (Spring, 2001), pp. 22-45. Brereton's personal problems in 1927 are thoroughly detailed in Part I, pp. 15-18.


A long journey

This proactive approach helped his airline become the force that it is today. If he did not have the ambition of turning a humble crop-dusting company into a passenger airline, there would be no sight of Delta’s livery on planes across the globe.

It wasn’t only the bright ideas of the businessman that catalyzed the firm’s rise. The drive that he also possessed continued to spread throughout the company.

What are your thoughts on Delta’s early days? Do you know of any other stories about Delta’s early history? Let us know what you think in the comment section.



Comments:

  1. Gabar

    It is exclusively your opinion

  2. Dak

    I know exactly that this is the error.

  3. Coire

    Bravo, what a phrase ..., the admirable thought



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