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Battle of St. Jacob, 26 May 1444 (Switzerland)


Battle of St. Jacob, 26 May 1444 (Switzerland)

Swiss defeat that nevertheless increased their reputation. A Swiss army attacked a French army led by the Dauphin that outnumbered them fifteen to one,broke the centre of the army, and even when surrounded, continued to fight until they were wiped out. They had inflicted so much damage on the French army that the Dauphin was forced to retreat into France, and leave the Swiss alone.

Thomas Hoskyns Leonard Blog

The Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs took place on 26 August 1444 between the Old Swiss Confederacy and French mercenaries. The Swiss troop of 1,500 attacked the French army of 20,000 men. The battle lasted several hours in the end the smaller, but offensive Swiss forces were weakened and forced to retreat in a small hospital. They refused to surrender and all but 16 were killed by the overwhelming superiority. The French troops lost up to 6,000 men and were forced to stop their advance to Zürich. The battle became very famous but there was no symbolic connotation until the early 19th century after the collapse of the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic when the battle was stylized as a heroic and selfless rescue of the Swiss Confederacy from a French invasion.

The hospital was just next to this church, but the current church building was rebuilt in 1894. There are two murals depicting battle scenes on the front wall of the church and a stone plaque.




After peace was established, many veterans originally recruited by Count Bernard VII formed mercenary bands that also became known as the Armagnacs. Although they were in the service of King Charles VII, the Armagnacs became notorious for their rapacious plundering in the north of France. In 1444 they were sent to Switzerland on an expedition known as the Armagnac War, which culminated in a battle between the Swiss and the Armagnac mercenaries on August 26, 1444. Although the Swiss were badly defeated, their determined resistance persuaded the Armagnacs to withdraw from Switzerland. Soon after, the Armagnacs were incorporated into Charles VII's regular army.

During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold. The duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, and the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province. However the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs.


Battle of St. Jacob, 26 May 1444 (Switzerland) - History

JACOBINS
A monastery of Jacobin monks in Seville In Tuke's Five Hours ii. 1, Don Antonio says, "Is not this the market-place, behind the J.?"

JACOB'S STONE
A block of reddish-gray sandstone 26 inches long, 16 wide, and 11 thick fixed under the seat of the Coronation Chair in the Chapel of Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey. It was brought from Scotland by Edward I in 1297, where it had been used for centuries at the Abbey of Scone in the coronation of the Kings of Scotland. It was believed to be the stone on which Jacob slept at Bethel, and which he subsequently set up as a sacred pillar (see Gen. xxviii. 18). In T. Heywood's Royal King i. 1, the Prince says, "If I ever live to sit on Jacob's stone thy love shall with my crown be hereditary."

JAERTIS
(= the ancient JAXARTES, now SYR–DAM, or YELLOW RIVER). A river flowing through N. Turkestan into the Sea of Aral. Samarcand is not actually on the Syr-Daria, but is not far from its head-waters. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iv. 2. Tamburlaine upbraids Samarcand with the cowardice of his son Calyphas, and speaks of him as a "shame of nature which J. streams, Embracing thee with deepest of his love, Can never wash from thy distained brows."

JAGO'S (ST.) CHURCH
A ch. in Cordova. In Davenant's Distresses iv., Orgemon says, "The house which fronts upon J. Ch. is the only place to which he doth design his visits."

JAMANY
( i.e. GERMANY). In M. W. W. iv. 5, 89, Caius says, "It is tell-a me dat you make grand preparation for a D. de J."

JAMES (SAINT)
An anglicised form of St. Jacob, a small village in Switzerland, on the Birs, close to Basle, where the French, with 32,000 men, were held in check for 10 hours by 1,600 Swiss. This was in 1444, and laid the foundation of the reputation of the Swiss for valour. A cross outside the gates of Basle still marks the site of the battle. In Chapman's D'Olive iv. 2, 112, D'Olive says that after his famous embassy "Agincourt battle, St. J. his field, the loss of Calais, and the winning of Cales, shall grow out of use men shall reckon their years . . . from the day of our ambassage."

JAMES (ST.)
Or SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELLA. A City in Galicia in.W. Spain, 300 m. N.W. of Madrid, near the coast. It contained the shrine of the apostle J. the Great, the brother of John, who was put to death by Herod (Acts Xii. 2). The legend, confusing him with J., the brother of our Lord and 1st Bp. of Jerusalem, related that he visited Spain, then returned to Jerusalem, and was thrown from the battlements of the Temple by the Jews. His body was conveyed to Spain, and was discovered at Santiago by the indication of a star. Hence the name Compostella, plain of the Star. A shrine was forthwith built in 835, but was destroyed in 997 by the Moors. The saint's body was, however, respected, and the present cathedral was erected to contain it 1078�. It became one of the most popular places of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages, the pilgrim's sign being a scallop shell, and St. J. was recognized as the Patron Saint of Spain. Langland, in Piers B. Prol. 47, tells of palmers and pilgrims who plighted them together to "seke seynt Iames" and Chaucer's Wife of Bath had been "in Galice at Seint Jame" (C. T. A. 466). In Elynour Ramming, we are told of drunken Ales who "was full of tales Of tidings in Wales And St. Iames in Gates." The Milky Way was called "the Way to St. J.": the numerous stars representing the pilgrims. Montaigne (Florin's Trans. 1603) ii. 15, says that "Those of Mares d'Ancona . . . go on pilgrimage rather unto J. in Galicia "than to their own Lady of Loreto. See SANTIAGO and COMPOSTELLA.

JAMES (ST.), CHURCH OF
There were churches dedicated to St. J. in Lond. during our period, in Clerkenwell, N. of the Green, originally the choir of a Benedictine nunnery founded about 1100–the present building dates from 1788 in Garlick-hithe, built in 1606, destroyed in the Fire, and rebuilt by Wren and in Duke's Place, Aldgate, built on the site of the conventual ch. of the Holy Trinity in 1622 and pulled down in 1874. In Reasons in a Hollow Tree, we are told of "an old man that died in the parish of St. J., near Duke's Pl., within Aldgate," whose funeral sermon was of commendable brevity: "Ashes to ashes, dust to dust Here's the hole and in thou must." St. J. Clerkenwell had a lofty spire, which fell down in 1623 after having stood for 500 years. In Pasquil's Palinodia (1619), it is said of the Strand Maypole: "It No city, town, nor street can parallel, Nor can the lofty spire of Clerkenwell."

JAMES (SAINT) FAIR
Was held annually in Westminster on St. J.'s Day, 25th July. In Deloney's Craft, it is said of the Green King of St. Martin's: "St. J. his day at last being come, he called up his wife betimes, and bad her make ready, if she would to the Fair," but he dragged her all the way to Bristol, where there was also a Fair on St. J.'s day. In Cowley's Cutter [a.k.a. Guardian] v. 1, Will says that the cook "looked like the ox that's roasted whole in St. J. 's Fair."

JAMES (SAINT) PALACE
A royal palace in Lond., at the W. end of the Mall, facing St. J.'s Park. It was originally a hospital for lepers dedicated to St. J. It was taken possession of by Henry VIII in 1528 and turned into a Palace. The brick gate-house facing St. J. 's St. and part of the Chapel date from this time. It was improved and fitted up in 1620 for the Infanta of Spain, who was to have married Prince Charles. Here Q. Mary died and Charles II was born. Charles I walked from St. J.'s to Whitehall on the morning of his execution. Though it is no longer a royal residence, the official title of the English Court is "our Court of St. J.'s." The mustering of the Guards in the Colour Court at 11 every morning is still one of the minor sights of Lond. In Middleton's Tennis, the characters in the Induction are the palaces of Richmond, St. J: s, and Denmark House. St. J speaks of "my new gallery and tennis-court": which Richmond depreciates as being built of brick. The reference is to the improvements made in 1619㪬 for the Infanta. In St. Hilary's Tears (1642), we read: "If the Prince were but at St. J.'s, there would be something done." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 343, the Q. says, "Dismiss our camp, and tread a royal march Toward St. J.'s."

JAMES'S (ST.) PARK
A park in Lond., of abt. 60 acres, lying opposite St. J. Palace, between The Mall and Birdcage Walk. Facing the W. end of it is Buckingham Palace on the E. are the Horse Guards, the Admiralty, and the Treasury. It was formed and walled in by Henry VIII, and greatly improved by Charles II. In Jonson's Gipsies, one of them speaks of "The parks and chases And the finer walled places, As St. J., Greenwich, Theobalds." In Dekker's Babylon, p. 260, Paridel says of Titania (Elizabeth): "Not an arrow be shot at her until we take our aim in S. Iagoes Park." Paridel is William Parry, who was believed to have plotted the assassination of Elizabeth in 1584: S. Iago's Park is obviously St. J. Park. Deloney, in Newberie vi., tells how the clothiers presented their petition to Henry VIII, "His Majesty walking in St. James, his Park." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Peacham mentions amongst the Sights of Lond. "St. James his Ginney Hens, the Cassawarway moreover." These birds were kept in the aviary, which gave its name to Birdcage Walk. He goes on: "The Beaver i' the Park (strange beast as e'er any man saw)": these beavers were kept in the ornamental water of the Park.

JAMESTOWN
A town in Virginia, U.S.A., on the James River, 8 m. S.W. of Williamsburg. Here in 1608 the first English settlement in N. America was made, and it remained the seat of government until 1798. It has now altogether disappeared, save for a few ruined buildings. In Cockayne's Obstinate ii. 1, Lorece, in his ridiculous story of his alleged travel, says, "I came at last to Virginia. In conclusion, at James Town Port I took horse and the next morning arrived in Wales."

JANUS, TEMPLE OF
At Rome, on the N.E. side of the Forum Romanum, in front of the Curia Hostilia. It was said to have been built by Numa. The gates of the Temple were opened when war was declared, and continued open as long as it lasted. They were only 4 times closed from the time of Numa to the birth of Christ, 2 of these dates being in the reign of Augustus. J. was the God of beginnings, or openings: his festival was on 1st January, which bears his name. He was represented with 2 faces, one looking backward and the other forward. Chaucer, in C. T. F. 1252, describing the winter, says, "J. sit by the fyr with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wyn." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 4, Tamburlaine says, Behold me . . . Breaking my steeled lance with which I burst The rusty beams of J.'s temple-doors, Letting out Death, and tyrannizing War To march with me." In Massinger's Maid Hon. i. 1, Adorni says of Bertoldo: "In his looks he seems To break ope J.'s Temple." In Webster's A. & Virginia i. 4, Virginius cries: "Let J.'s temple be devolved," i.e. thrown open. In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, Crispinus says that Rhadamanthus "dwells at the Three Furies, by J.'s temple." To which Horace replies, "Your pothecary does, Sir."

JAPAN
The large group of islands off the E. coast of Asia. They became known to Europe about the middle of the 16th cent. through the voyages of the Portuguese, one of whom, Antonio Mota, landed there in 1542. Xavier visited J. in 1549, and inaugurated a Christian Mission. Heylyn, in 1621, says that there were 200 Jesuit missionaries there. There were many collisions between the Government and the native Christians, which culminated in the great persecution 1614�. This may be the point of the following passage, written in 1607. In Barnes' Charter v. 1, Baglioni says, "This basilisk hath been often mounted where there hath been hot and dangerous service in the Ile of J." The remaining references show that J. was regarded as a very remote place. In Davenant's Love ii. 3, Frivolo says, "We are forgot, like creatures of J., Things hardly to be searched for in the map." In Davenport's Nightcap iv. 2, Lodovico, being asked what sort of a wife he would choose, if he were still unmarried, says, "Were I to choose then, as I would I were, So this [my present wife] were at J., I would wish a wife": of whom the description follows. In Tomkis' Albumazar i. 5, Albumazar has, amongst other marvellous things, made an almanack "for the meridian and height of J." In Milkmaids i. 3, Ranoff says, "I would your Lordship had been with me at Japon I protest they are the best riders." Burton, A. M. i. 2, 4, 6, says, "in Japonia it is a common thing to stifle their children, if they be poor." In iii. 2, 3, he says of lovers: "Another will take a journey to J . . . if she say it." In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, one of the Customers inquires, "Ha' you . . . any miracle Done in J. by the Jesuits, or in China?" In. Marston's Mountebanks, the Mountebank says, "If any be troubled with the Tentigo, let him travel to J."

JAQUES, SAINT (1)
(or ST. JAQUES LE GRAND, i.e. JAMES THE APOSTLE). The brother of John, as distinguished from James the Less. In the following passage the ch. referred to is probably San Jacopo Soprano, in Florence. It stands on the W. side of the Arno, in the Borgo San Jacopo, between the Ponte Vecchio and the Ponte San Trinita. The ch. dates from the 11th cent. There is another San Jacopo in Florence, on the W side of the Via Faenza, between Via San Antonio and Via Nazionale, of the 12th cent. In All's iii. 4, 4 iii. 5, 37, 98 iv. 3, 58, we learn that Helena has come to Florence on a pilgrimage to St. J. le Grand, or great St. J.

JAQUES, SAINT (2)
A nunnery in Malta. In Marlowe's Jew iii. 3, Abigail sends Ithamore to "the new-made nunnery," and bids him "inquire For any of the Friars of St. Jaques."

JAQUES PORT
One of the gates of Cordova. In Davenant's Distresses iii. i. Androlio asks: "Which way went he?" And the servant replies, "Through Jaques Port."

JARRATS HALL
See GERARD'S HALL.

JAVAN
According to Gen. x. 2, 4, J. was the son of Japhet and father of Elisha, Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim, i.e. of the AEolians (?) Spaniards, and Rhodians. It is the same word as Ionian, and was used by the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Hebrews for the peoples of the western Mediterranean coasts, including the AEgean Islands. Milton, P. L. i. 508, speaks of Saturn and Jove as "The Ionian gods–of J. 's issue held Gods." In S. A. 716, the Chorus says that Dalila "comes this way sailing Like a stately ship Of Tarsus, bound for the isles Of J. or Gadire."

JEBUSITES
The original inhabitants of Jerusalem, from whom David took the city (II Samuel v. 6). Hence the word was used to signify an enemy of the people of God. The Jews called the Gentiles J. the Protestants conferred the same name on the Romanists, especially the Jesuits and it was used generally as a term of abuse. In Marlowe's Jew ii. 3, Barabas calls Lodowick, who has fallen in love with his daughter, "This offspring of Cain, this Jebusite, That never tasted of the Passover." Purchas, in his Pilgrimage (1614) 18, calls the Jesuits "that Jebusitical society." In Jack Drum i. 156, Drum says of Mammon, the usurer: "Let the Jebusite depart in peace." In Chivalry C. 1, Bowyer says, "And I lie, call me Jebusite." Latimer, in sermon on Lord's Prayer vii., says, "We should fight against the Js. that are within us," i.e. our sins.

JERICHO
A town in Palestine, near the Jordan, some 18 m. E. of Jerusalem. It was taken and destroyed by Joshua, but rebuilt in the time of Ahab. In Greene and Lodge's Looking Glass v. 1, 1878, when Jonah preaches in Nineveh, Adam says, "'Tis one goodman Jonas that is come from J." In Milton, P. R. ii. 20, the disciples go to seek for Jesus "in J., The city of palms." In II Sam. x. 5, we are told that David sent his messengers, who had been maltreated by the Ammonites, to J., to tarry there till their beards were grown. Hence came the phrase to go to J., meaning to go into retirement for a time. T. Heywood, in Hierarchie B. iv, says, "Bid such young boys to stay in J. Until their beards were grown, their wits more staid." In Look about xiii., when the porter asks Gloster, who has been sent to prison, "Whither must you now?" he replies, with a stammer, "To je-je-richo, I think 'tis such a h-h-humorous Earl." In Jonson's Tub ii. 1, Hilts, ordered to go to St. Pancras, says, "An you say the word, send me to J." In Apius 788, Haphazard says, "Well, sith here is no company, have with ye to Jerico." In J. Heywood's Four PP., p. 8, the Pardoner says to the Palmer, "At your door myself doth dwell Who could have saved your soul as well As all your wide wandering shall do Though ye went thrice to J." In Thracian ii. 2, Palemon says, "Come, we'll embark us in this hollow tree, And sail to J., Music! shall we dance?" "Ay, ay," says the Clown, "we'll dance to J."

The Rose of J. is not a true rose, but a cruciferous plant (Anastatica Hierochuntina), also called the resurrection flower, because it revives under the influence of moisture. It is often called the Rose of the Virgin, or Mary's Flower. In Three Kings of Cologne (1400) 90, it is related that "dry roses which be cleped the roses of Jerico" grow on the road by which the Virgin Mary went to Egypt. Lydgate, in Min. Poems 96, calls the Virgin "This Rose of J., freshest on live." In Candlemas 13, she is styled "Of Jerico the sote rose flower." Herrick, in Good wishes for the Duke of York, prays: "May his pretty Dukeship grow Like t' a rose of J."

JERSEY
The largest of the Channel Islands, abt. 15 m. off the N.W. coast of France. The knitting of stockings and other worsted articles was long a staple industry in the island. In B. & F. Scornful i. 1, the younger Loveless says, "If I be not found in carnation J. stockings, I'll ne'er look you in the face again." Middleton, in Hubburd, p. 84, says, "All his stock [is] not worth a J. stocking." Harrison, in his England ii. 7, satirizes "the women's diversely coloured stocks of silk jerdsie." In B. & F. Woman Hater iv. 2, the Mercer says his stockings "are of the best of wool and they are ycleped J." and he informs us they cost 9s. In Armin's Moreclacke G. 1, the Governor of Scilly points out, "On this side Brittaine and on that side Garsie." Drayton, in Polyolb. 1, 49, apostrophizes, "Fair J . . . . Peculiarly that boast'st thy double-horned sheep." See also under GUERNSEY.

JERUSALEM
A city in S. Palestine, 17 m. due W. of the N. extremity of the Dead Sea and 37 m. from the Mediterranean. The original name appears to have been Yeru-shalem, probably meaning "Hearth of Peace." This became in Greek Ierousalem or Hierousalem, and later Ierosolyma, or Hierosolyma sometimes abbreviated to Solyma. The city was originally in the hands of the Jebusites, but was taken by David at the beginning of his reign and made the capital of his kingdom. The city of David was probably on the S. part of the E. hill, on the N. plateau of which Solomon built the Temple where the Mosque of Omar now stands. The buildings of the growing city gradually extended over the W. hill, now known as Mt. Zion. Destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar in 588 B.C., it was rebuilt after the return of the exiles in 538, and remained the capital of Judaea till its destruction by Titus A.D. 70. It fell into the hands of the Mohammedans in 637, when the Caliph Omar erected a mosque on the Temple Hill, afterwards reconstructed on a magnificent scale by Abd-el-Melik. The recovery of the Holy Sepulchre from the Mohammedans was the object of the Crusades of the 11th cent.: the Crusaders took the city in 1099 and the Christian kingdom of J. was founded under Godfrey of Bouillon, which lasted till 1187,when Saladin took the city and restored the Mohammedan power. The Crusades that followed had no permanent success, and J. remained under the rule of the Arabs until, in 1517, it was added by Selim to the Ottoman Empire.

References to Scripture History:
In Bale's Promises vi, Esaias says, "The K. of Judah in J. did dwell." In Greene and Lodge's Looking Glass i. 2, the Angel promises Jonah, when he has done his work at Nineveh, "I'll carry thee to Jewry back again, And seat thee in the great J." In Hester (A. P. ii. 279), Hester says, quite unhistorically, "I was born and eke bred in J." The Monk, in Chaucer's C. T. B. 3337. says that Nabugodonosor "Twyes wan J. the citee" (see II Kings xxv. 1, and 8). In Candlemas, p. 9, Herod says, "I be here in my chief city Called J." In Everyman, p. 53, Gooddeeds speaks of "Myssias of Jherusalem King." In Milton, P. R. iii. 234, the Tempter reminds our Lord that he has only been once a year in "J. few days' Short sojourn." In 283, he recalls how the Babylonians "J. laid waste, Till Cyrus set them free." In iv. 544, he bears our Lord through the air, "Till underneath them fair J., The Holy City, lifted high her towers." The scene of Herring's Jewes Trag. is laid partly at J., and describes the destruction of the city by Titus in A.D. 70. In B. & F. Cure ii. 1, Pachieco says, "One peace was a soldier's provant a whole day at the destruction of J." In Darius, p. 89, Zorobabell reminds Darius, "J. thou didst promise To build up every whit." Darius is confused with Cyrus, who allowed the Jews to return to J. after the captivity in Babylon. The destruction of J. was the subject of puppet plays, though it was not apparently as popular as the destruction of Nineveh. In Marston's Courtesan iii. 1, 4 "motions" are mentioned: "Nineveh, Julius Caesar, Jonas, or the destruction of J." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 1, Leatherhead says of his puppet-plays: "J. was a stately thing and so was Nineveh." In Henslowe's Diary, mention is made of a play called J., acted in 1591.

References to subsequent History, including the Crusades:
In Massinger's Actor iii. 1, Julia says of Domitian: "The legions that sacked J. under my father Titus are sworn his." In K. J. ii. 1, 378, the Bastard advises John and Philip, "Do like the mutines of J., Be friends awhile and both conjointly bend Your sharpest deeds of malice on this town." At the siege of J. by Titus A.D. 70, the 3 parties amongst the Jews sank their mutual animosities. Shakespeare may have got his information from Morwyn's translation of Ben Gorion's History (1575). In Davenant's Plymouth i. 1, Cable complains: "This town is dearer than J. after a year's siege." The sufferings of the Jews from famine towards the close of the siege were frightful. In T. Heywood's Prentices, the siege of 1099 is described, and the coats-of-arms of the Lond. City Companies are said to have been emblazoned on the shields of the Crusaders. In Massinger's Renegado v. 1, Francisco speaks of the "knights that in the Holy Land Fought for the freedom of J." In Peele's Ed. I i. 1, the Queen-mother says, "Now comes lovely Edward from J." Prince Edward went crusading in 1271. In H4 A. i. 1, 102, Henry says, "We must awhile neglect Our holy purpose to J." His pious intention was never fulfilled. Though Saladin took J. in 1187, the Kings of J. still maintained some show of authority in Palestine the daughter of the last of them, John di Brenn, married Frederick of Naples, and he and his successors assumed the title. So, in H6 A. v. 5, 40, Reignier, the father of Margaret of Anjou, is entitled "K. of Naples and J." and in H6 C. v. 9, 39, Clarence says that "Reignier to the K. of France hath pawned The Sicils and J." for the ransom of Margaret. He sold Naples, the two Sicilies, and Provence to Louis XI for 50,000 crowns for this purpose: no doubt his titular claim to J. was included, but it was not worth much. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 1, Frederic speaks of Orcanes of Natolia having gone to help "the Kings of Soria [ i.e. Tyre] and J." against Tamburlaine: there was no king at this time.

The Order of the Knights of St. John of J, began with a small hospital dedicated to John the Baptist and erected in J. in 1048 for poor pilgrims. In 1113 the Order received the sanction of the Pope, Pascal II, and rapidly grew in power and influence, adding to its ministration to the sick the duty of fighting against the Infidel. Being expelled from Palestine, they first went to Cyprus in 1291 and in 1310 conquered Rhodes, which they held till 1523, when Solyman drove them out. They then went to Malta, which was granted to them by Charles V in 1530. The badge of the Order was a white Maltese cross, and it has received a new interest from its adoption by the modern St. John Ambulance societies. In B. & F. Malta 1, 3, Gomera addresses Valetta: "Great-Master of J.'s Hospital From whence to Rhodes this blest fraternity Was driven, but now among the Maltese stands" and in iii. 3, he calls it an order "Which princes through all dangers have been proud To fetch as far as from J."

Pilgrimages to J. were frequent all through the Middle Ages, and the pilgrims received in many cases a J mark, consisting of a cross tattooed on their arms or bodies. Chaucer's Wife of Bath had been thrice at J. (C. T. A. 463). The Palmer, in J. Heywood's Four PP. i. boasts, "At Hierusalem have I been Before Christ's blessed sepulchre." In Marlowe's Jew iv. 1, Barabas professes to the Friars his willingness "To fast, to pray, and wear a shirt of hair, And on my knees creep to J." as penance for his sins. In Massinger's Guardian iv. 1, when Calista protests against her abduction, Durazzo says, "There are a shoal of young wenches would vow a pilgrimage beyond J. to be so cheated." In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 1, Geraldine says, "I have seen J. and Rome, have brought Mark from the one, from the other Testimony." In The Gamester i. 1, Wilding says he "would undertake to go a pilgrimage to J., and return, sooner "than ask his wife's consent to his intrigue with Penelope. In Dekker's If It Be 285, the Pilgrim says, "We pilgrims to J. bound this night desire repose." In B. & F. Malta v. 2, Gomera vows "to tread a pilgrimage To fair J. for my lady's soul."

Travellers without the motive of a pilgrimage visited J. In Middleton's No Wit iii. 1, Pickadill says, "There's a brave travelling scholar, one that has been all the world over, and some part of J." In Jonson's Case i. 1, Valentine, returning from his travels, admits to having seen "J. and the Indies and Goodwin Sands, and the tower of Babylon and Venice." It was a long journey: hence when, in Juggler 36, Dame Coy says "A more fool is not from hence to J.," she means in the whole world. In Trag. Richd. II iii. 3, 80, the Butcher, terrified by the K.'s exactions, says, "I would my wife and children were at J. with all the wealth."

The Mt. Of Olives stands E. of the city. In Dekker's Babylon i. 1, the Empress speaks of "sons and daughters that Like olives nursed up by J. Heightened our glories." There is probably a reminiscence of Psalm cxxviii.3: "Thy children [shall be] like olive plants round about thy table." Owing to the Jewish idea that the kingdom of the Messiah was to be marked by the descent of a new J. from heaven, and the adoption of this idea by the author of the book of Revelation (c. xxi), J. came to be used for Heaven. In H6 C. v. 5, 7, when Somerset is ordered off to execution, Margaret says, "So part we sadly in this troublous world, To meet with joy in sweet J." The parson in Chaucer's C. T. I. 51, undertakes to show his hearers the way "Of thilke parfit, glorious pilgrymage that highte J. celestial." In Yarrington's Two Trag. i. 2, Pandino says, "We do await The blessed hour when it shall please the Lord To take us to the just J." In Devonshire iv. 2, the Friar says to Dick, who has been condemned to death, "We come to set your feet on the right way To Palestine, the New J."

Drayton, in Eng. Helicon (1614), p. 44, says, "Bedeck our Beta. .. With cowslips of J." This flower is the Lungwort ( Pulmonaria Officinalis ). T. Robinson, in Mary Magdalene (1620), 324, commends "couslips of Hierusalem so nice."

J. Artichoke has really nothing to do with J., but is a corruption of the Italian "Girasole Articiocco," or Sunflower Artichoke. It was introduced into Europe in 1617. In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier v. 1, the Clown says, "These Christians are like artichokes of J.: they overrun any ground they grow in." In Mayne's Match ii. 1, Dorcas says, "The price of sprats, J. artichokes, and Holland cheese is very much increased, so that the brethren can't live in their vocation."

JERUSALEM CHAMBER
A hall at the W. front of Westminster Abbey, leading S. to the Deanery. It was built by Abbot Littlington towards the end of the 14th cent., and was probably the Hall of the Deanery. Three inscriptions run round the fireplace: "O pray for the peace of J." "Build thou the walls of J ," and "J. which is above is free." Hence the name. It is used as the Chapter House of the Abbey, and the Revision of the Bible in 1870 was made within its walls. Henry IV died there. In H4 B. iv. 5, 234, the K. is told that the room where he swooned is called J., and says, "Laud be to God! even there my life must end. It hath been prophesied to me many years I should not die but in J. Which vainly I supposed the Holy Land But bear me to that chamber there I'll lie In that J. shall Harry die."

JESUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE
University of Cambridge, originally a Priory of Nuns of the Benedictine Order. It was dissolved by Henry VII in 1496 and handed over to John Alcock, Bp. of Ely, to be converted into a College. It got its name from the chapel of the Priory, which was dedicated to the name of J. It stands in J. Close, between J. Lane and the Cam. A J. College MS. mentions the production of "Club Law fabula festivissima " at Clare Hall in 1599�

JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD
University of Oxford, situated at the corner of Turl St. and Market St., opposite Exeter College. It was founded by Hugh ap Rice in 1571, and refounded by Sir Leoline Jenkins, another Welshman, in 1660. Most of the Principals have been Welsh, and so have many of the students. In The Puritan i. 2, Pyeboard gives an account of his career at Oxford: "I have been matriculated in the University, wore out 6 gowns there, seen some fools and some scholars, some of the city and some of the country, kept order, went bare-headed over the quadrangle, eat my commons with a good stomach, and battled with discretion at last I was expelled the University only for stealing a cheese out of J. College." The Welsh fondness for cheese is a common jest with our dramatists (see under WALES). In Dekker's Northward iv. 1, Capt. Jenkin, a Welshman, says, "I ha' picked up my cronies in Sesus [sic] College."

JESUS GATE and STREET
In Whetstone's Promos B. i. 4, Phallax, arranging for a City Pageant in the town of Julio, says, "On J. G. the 4 virtues I trove Appointed are to stand." In scene 6, one of the men, "apparelled like green men at the Mayor feast," says that they are waiting "In J. St. to keep a passage clear That the K. and his train may pass with ease." The whole scene is a Lond. one, and as the K. would come to the City from Westminster, Ludgate is probably meant by J. G., and Ludgate Hill or Cheapside by J. St. See ST. ANNE'S Cross.

JEW
(Jh. = Jewish), Lat. Judaeus . Properly a member of the tribe of Judah, but since after the Babylonish Exile Judah was the only tribe that returned to Palestine in any large numbers, J. came to be synonymous with Hebrew. During the 1st cent. A. D. Christian writers used J. for an opponent of Christ, as, for example, in St. John's Gospel, and so the word took on an opprobrious connotation. During the Middle Ages the Js. were largely engaged in money-lending, and J. came to mean a money-lender, a usurer, with the added suggestion of craft and unscrupulousness. From the 11th to the 15th cents. the Js. were treated with abominable cruelty in all parts of Europe. They were subject to violent extortion by the Kings they were tortured and burnt by the Ch., especially in France and Spain in the Anglican Liturgy (Collect for Good Friday) they are classed with Turks, Infidels, and Heretics they were charged with unnatural crimes, especially with the ritual murder of children, as in Chaucer's story told by the Prioress and the popular legend of Hugh of Lincoln they were expelled from England in 1290, from France in 1307, from Spain in 1492. In Germany and Italy they were confined to certain quarters of the cities, called Ghettos, and were compelled to wear the distinctive yellow gaberdine. It was not till the reign of Charles II that they obtained legal recognition in England, and only in 1858 was the last disability removed and Js. permitted to sit in Parliament.

The word used as a National Name without any Offensive Connotation:
The Pardoner, in Chaucer's C. T. C. 351, says that he has among his relics "a sholder boon Which that was of an hooly Jewes sheep": probably he means a J. before the time of Christ. So the Merchant (E. 2277) calls Solomon "this J." In Merch. ii. 3, 11, Launcelot calls Jessica "Most beautiful pagan, most sweet J." In Marlowe's Jew ii. 3, Barabas says, "As sure as heaven rained manna for the Js., So sure . . . shall he die." In Merch. iii. 1, 61, Shylock says, "I am a J. Hath not a J. eyes? Hath not a J. hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is?" Heming's Jewes Trag. relates the story of the taking of Jerusalem by Titus in A.D. 70. Milton, P. R. iii. 358, speaks of "Samaritan or J."

Jew as opposed to Gentile:
In Merch. ii. 6, 51, Gratiano says of Jessica: "She is a Gentile and no J." In Jeronimo, the Epilogue says, "Good night, kind gentles, for I hope there's never a J. among you all." The same pun is intended in Merch. 1, 3, 178, where Antonio says to Shylock, "Hie thee, gentle J." Milton, P. R. iii. 118, says that God demands glory "Promiscuous from all nations, J., or Greek, Or Barbarous." In Sharpham's Fleire ii. 331, when Sparke enters with "Save ye, Gentles," Ruffel says, "Then we are enemies to the Jewes."

Jewish Abstinence from Pork:
In Merch. 1, 3, 34, Shylock, asked to dinner by Bassanio, says, "Yes, to smell pork to eat of the habitation which your prophet the Nazarite conjured the devil into" (see Matthew Viii. 28). In iii. 5, 39, Jessica says, "In converting Js. to Christians you raise the price of pork.." In Day's Parl. Bees x., Impotens says, "This J., though he will eat no pork, eats bees." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Carlo says of pork: "No marvel though that saucy, stubborn generation, the Js., were forbidden it for what would they ha' done, well pampered with fat pork, that durst murmur at their Maker out of garlic and onions?" In Davenant's Wits 1, 2, the elder Palatine will not give the younger "so much as will find a J. bacon to his eggs," i.e. nothing at all. In Webster's Malfi iii. 2, an officer says, "He could not abide to see a pig's head gaping I thought your Grace would find him a J." In B. & F. Prophetess 1, 3, Geta, who is carrying the body of a huge boar, says, "I shall turn J. if I carry many such burdens." In their Prize 1, 2, Livia, when Rowland says "If wealth may win you," replies scornfully, "If a hog may be High-priest among the Js."

Jewish Distinctive Dress:
In Merch. i. 3, 113, Shylock says, "You spit upon my Jh. Gaberdine." The Gaberdine was a loose upper garment. In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, "Some like breechless women go–The Russ, Turk, J., and Grecian." In B. & F. Custom ii. 3, Rutilio, seeing 2 men approaching, says, "One, by his habit, is a J." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Sconce says, "The Js. at Rome Wear party-coloured garments, to be known From Christians."

Jew used with a general Opprobrious Connotation:
In Chaucer, C. T. B. 1749, the Prioress says that Satan "hath in Jewes herte his waspes nest," and throughout the tale they are called "cursed Jewes." In Two Gent. ii. 5, 58, Launce says to Speed, "Go with me to the alehouse if not, thou art an Hebrew, a J., and not worth the name of a Christian." In Merch. ii. 2, 119, Launcelot says, "I am a J. if I serve the J. any longer." In ii. 8, 4, Salanio calls Shylock "the villain J.," and in 14, "the dog J." In Ado ii. 3, 272, Benedick says, "If I do not love her, I am a J." In Merch. ii. 2, 112, Launcelot says, "My master's a very J." in 34, "The J. is the very devil incarnal." In H4 A. ii. 4, 198, Falstaff says, "They were bound, every man of them, or I am a J. else, an Ebrew J." Barabas, the hero of Marlowe's Jew, is an example of every kind of enormity. In Ford's 'Tis Pity iv. 3, Putana says, "Dost think I am a Turk or a J.?" In Middleton's Phoenix iii. 1, Falso says, "If men be Js., justices must be cruel." In Day's B. Beggar ii., Strowd says, "I'll meet thee, else call me J." In Massinger's Madam v. 2, Luke says, "I am styled a cormorant, a cut-throat J." In Brome's Moor iii. 3,. Arnold brings word "the old J. Quicksands Has lost his wife." Campion, in Book of Airs (1617) iii., says, "Safer may we credit give To a faithless wandering J."

Jew as an Unbeliever:
In Piers C. xx. 96, Faith "gan foully the false levees to despisen." In C. xxii. 34, he says, "The Iuwes that weren gentel-men, Iesu thei dispiseden, Both hus lore and hus lawe, now aren thei lowe cheorles." "Liver of blaspheming J." is one of the ingredients of the witches' cauldron in Macbeth iv. 1, 16. In Fulwell's Like iii. 336, Virtuous Living says, "O gracious God, how highly art Thou of all men to be praised, of Christians, Saracens, Js., and also Turks." In Ingelond's Disobedient 82, the devil says, "O all the Js. and all the Turks, in the end they fly hither [ i.e. to hell] all and some." In Goosecap v. 1, Rudesby says to Hippolita, "If the sun of thy beauty do not white me like a shippard's holland, I am a J. to my Creator." In Wapull Tarrieth G. 4, Faithful Few says, "The Jh. infidel to God doth more agree Than such as Christianity do so misuse": a rare sentiment in those days. It was believed that a Jew who mocked at our Lord on His way to the Cross was condemned to live until His Second Coming, and meanwhile to wander through the world. Taylor, in Life of Parr (1635), p. 214, says, "John Buttadeus, if report be true, Is his name that is styled the Wand'ring J."

Jews as Moneylenders and Usurers:
In Piers C. v. 194, Reason speaks of "Lumbardes of Lukes that Iyven by lone as Iewes." Shylock, in Merch., is a typical moneylender, and in 1, 3, 70, defends his taking of interest by the example of Jacob's dealings with Laban. In Marmion's Companion ii. 4, Careless says to AEmilia, "Thy father is an usurer, a J." Nash, in Wilton K. 2, says, "All Js. are covetous." In Wise Men iii. 3, Hermito says, "Usury was wont to be a thing odious among Christians and used by none but Js." Jh. moneylenders occur in Wilson's Three Ladies , Daborne's Christian Turned Turk , and Rowley's Three English Brothers. Dekker, in Seven Sins vi. 40, speaks of "brokers that shave poor men by most Jh. interest." In Brome's Antipodes iii. 4, Lefoy says, "Usury goes round the world, and will do till the general conversion of the Js." In Shirley's Bird ii. 2, Rolliardo says, "I heard a pound of flesh, a J's. demand once": the reference being to Shylock's bond in Merch. In Middleton's R. G. iii. 3, Curtlax says that Dapper is "as damned a usurer as ever was among Js." Heylyn (s.v. PALESTINE) says of the Js.: "They are now accounted a perjurious vagabond nation, and great usurers."

Jews as Implacable and Cruel:
In Merch. iv. 1, 80, Antonio says, "You may as well do anything most hard As seek to soften that–than which what's harder?–His Jh. heart." In Two Gent. ii. 3, 12, Launce says, "A J. would have wept to see our parting." In Marlowe's Jew ii. 3, Barabas says, "We Js. can fawn like spaniels when we please And when we grin we bite." In iii. 3, Abigail says, "I perceive there is no pity in Js." In B. & F. Custom ii. 3, Rutilio says to Zabulon, "That you'll help us We dare not hope, because you are a J. And courtesies come sooner from the devil Than any of your nation." In Day's Travails (Bullen, p.55), Zariph says, "Zariph is a J, A crucifying hangman, trained in sin, One that would hang his brother for his skin."

Jews as Experts in the use of Poisonous Drugs:
In Marston's Malcontent v. 3, when Mendozo asks Malevole, "Canst thou empoison?" he replies, "Excellently no J., 'pothecary, or politician better." In Massinger's Milan v. 2, Francisco, disguised as "a J doctor," poisons the lips of the dead Marcelia, and so kills Sforza when he kisses her. In B. & F. Wife iv. 1, Sorano says he got the drug with which he intends to poison Alphonso from "A J., an honest and a rare physician." In Selimus 1684, Selimus says, "Baiazet hath with him a cunning J., Professing physic, and so skilled therein As if he had power over life and death Withal a man so stout and resolute That he will venture any thing for gold." This J. poisons Baiazet and himself at the same time. In Webster's Law Case iii. 2, Romelio appears disguised as a J., in order to murder Contarion, and he swears to give the surgeons 10,000 ducats "by my Jewism."

Jews as Old Clothes Dealers:
In Ev. Wom. I. iv. 1, the City Wife says, "You may hire a good suit at a J. 's or at a broker's."

Jew's Ear:
Properly Judas's Ear, "auricula Judae." a fungus growing on the trunk of trees, especially on the elder, on which Judas is said to have hanged himself. In T. Heywood's Witches iii., it is said, "All the sallets are turned to Jewes-ears." In Nabbes' Totenham iii. 6, Slip says, "If I find them not, count me no wiser than an apothecary that looked for Jewes ears on an old pillory."

Jew's Eye
Used proverbially for anything very precious. Probably there is a kind of pun on jewel. In Merch. ii. 5, 43, Launcelot says to Jessica, "There will come a Christian by, will be worth a Jewes eye." Jewes is the gen. sing., not = Jewess.

Jewish care about Genealogies, as Evidenced in Bk. of Chronicles, etc.:
In Davenant's Italian iii. 2, Florello says, "I'm an old J. at genealogies."

Jew as a term of endearment: probably with a sort of punning reference to jewel:
In L. L. L. iii. 1, 136, Costard calls Moth "My sweet ounce of man's flesh! My incony J.!" In M. N. D. iii. 1, 97, Flute, as Thisbe, calls Pyramus, "Most brisky Juvenal and eke most lovely J."

Wealth of the Jews:
In Marlowe's Jew i. 1, Barabas tells of his great wealth, and adds: "Rather had I, a J., be hated thus Than pitied in a Christian poverty."

Persecution of the Jews:
In Chapman's Alphonsus v. 1, 471, Edward says, "I would adjudge the villain to be hanged As here the Js. are hanged in Germany." The custom was to hang Js. up by the feet between 2 savage dogs. In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier iv. 3, the Clown says "a J. burns pretty well but he burns upward the fire takes him by the nose first."

Jews as Murderers of Children:
See Chaucer's Prioress' Tale. In Marlowe's Jew iii. 6, Jacomo asks of Barabas "Has he crucified a child?" And Barnadine answers, "No, but a worse thing."

Jews as Sweaters of the Currency:
In 1230 Js. had to pay ( of their movable property for their alleged clipping of the coin of the realm. In Piers C. Vii. 241, Avarice confesses, "Ich lerned of Jewes To weie pans with a peis, and pared the hevyeste."

Jews as Magicians, Fortune-tellers, and Astrologers:
In Marston's Malcontent v. 1, Maquerelle says, "A Chaldean or an Assyrian, I am sure 'twas a most sweet J told me 'court any woman in the right sign, you shall not miss.'"

Jew's Harp, or Jew's Trump:
A musical instrument consisting of a flexible metal tongue in a lyre-shaped frame. It is held between the teeth, and the note is produced by striking the tongue with the finger and varying the size of the resonant cavity of the mouth. It is not clear why it was so called. The suggestion that it is a corruption of Jaws' Harp cannot be sustained. In Lyly's Campaspe ii. 1, Psyllus, listening to the quarrel between Diogenes and Manes, says, "O sweet consent between a crowd [ i.e. hurdy-gurdy] and a J. 's harp!" In B. & F. Span. Cur. iv. 5, Diego, mocking his expectant heirs, says, "I do bequeathe ye commodities of pins . . . ginger-bread, and Js.-trumps." In their Hum. Lieut. v. 2, the Lieut. "has made a thousand rhymes and plays the burden to 'em on a J.'s-trump." In their Captain ii. 2, Jacomo says, "I had rather hear a J.'s-trump than these lutes." In Shirley's Opportunity iv. 1, Ascanio says, "Pimpinio has a great ambition to challenge Orpheus to play with him on any instrument from the organ to the J. 's trump." In B. & F. Lover's Prog. i., 1, Leon mentions among Malfort's qualities for charming a lady, "playing on a gittern or a J. 's trump." In Eastward ii. 2, Quicksilver says of Security, the usurer: "O 'tis a notable Jews-trump! I hope to live to see dog's meat made of the old usurer's flesh." In Dekker's If it be 288, Brisco has collected a band including "whole swarms of Welsh harps, Irish bagpipes, Js. trumps, and French kitts."

JEWIN STREET
Lond., running E. from Aldersgate St. to the junction of Red Cross St. and Gore St. It has its name from its being the only place of interment allowed to be used by the Jews in Lond. for a considerable time. Stow describes it as full of "fair garden plots and summer-houses for pleasure" and Howell, in 1657, says it was "a handsome new St., fairly built by the Company of Goldsmiths." Here John Milton lived from 1660 to 1664.

JEWRY
(= JUDAEA). The land of the Jews sometimes, as in the first 2 quotations, used for Palestine as a whole. In Greene and Lodge's Looking Glass i. 1, 24, Rasni boasts, "Great J.'s God that foiled stout Benhadad, Could not rebate the strength that Rasni brought." In v. 4, 2120, Adam, who is annoyed at having to fast, says, "Well, goodman Jonas, I would you had never come from J. to this country." In Candlemas, p. 10, Herod is called, "My Lord of all Jurye." In M. W. W. ii. 1, 20, Mrs. Page exclaims, after reading Falstaff's letter, "What a Herod of J. is this!" Herod was the villain of the Mystery Plays. In H5 iii. 3, 40, Henry says, "The mad mothers with their howls confused Do break the clouds, as did the wives of J. At Herod's bloody-hunting slaughtermen." This again is a reminiscence of the Mystery Plays. In Ant. i. 2, 28, Charmian says, "Let me have a child to whom Herod of J. may do homage." In iii. 3, 3, Alexas says to Cleopatra, "Herod of J. dare not look upon you But when you are well pleased." In iii. 6, 73, Caesar mentions "Herod of J." amongst Antony's allies. In iv. 6, 12, Enobarbus says, "Alexas did revolt and went to J. in Affairs of Antony.'' In R2 ii. 1, 55, Gaunt speaks of "The sepulchre in stubborn J. Of the world's ransom, blessed Mary's son." In Three Ladies i., Love says, "For lucre men come from Italy, Barbary, Turkey, from J." In Mariam iv. 3, Herod says to Mariam, "Art thou not Juries Queen?" In True Trag., p. 128, it is said of Q. Elizabeth: "Babies in Jury sound her princely name." In Tiberius 151, Asinius speaks of "The palms of Jury." Hall, in Satires iv. 3, says, "The palm doth rifely rise in Jury field." J. is also used as a name for the Ghettos, or Jews' quarters, in the various cities of Europe. Nash, in Wilton, says, "All, whether male or female, belonging to the old J. [at Rome] should depart." See for the London Jews' quarters under OLD JEWRY.

JHERUSALEM
(see JERUSALEM). The spelling is due to an attempt to combine the normal spelling with Hierosolima.

JOAN'S (ST.)
See JOHN'S (ST.), PRIORY OF.

JOHN (ST.) EVANGELIST
A bookseller's sign in Fleet St., Lond., opposite the Conduit. John Butler, assistant to Wynkyn de Worde, set up a printing office here. Here Thomas Colwell printed at this sign Phillips' Grissil, Darius (1565), and Gurton (1575). Wapull's Tarrieth was "Imprinted in Fleete-streate beneath the Conduite at the sign of Saynt J. E. by Hugh Jackson. 1576."

JOHN (ST.) LATERAN
(SAN GIOVANNI IN LATERANO). The famous ch. in Rome, at the S.E. corner of the city, in the Piazza di Porta San Giovanni at the E. end of the Via di San Giovanni in Laterano. It occupies the site of the house of Plautius Lateranus, who was put to death by Nero. Constantine gave it to the Pope as his episcopal residence, and founded the ch., helping to dig the foundations with his own hands. The Lateran Palace remained the residence of the Popes until the Babylonian Captivity (1309). An inscription on the entrance styles it "Omnium Urbis et Orbis Ecclesiarum Mater et Caput." Its chapter still takes precedence of that of St. Peter, and here the Pope is crowned. In Barnes' Charter iii. 1, Astor says, "I was now going to our Lady's Mass In St. J. L." In Tarlton's News, we read "It was Pope Joan, that honest woman, that as she went in procession through the Lataran was brought to bed in the streets."

JOHN (ST.) STREET
Lond., running N. from W. Smithfield to Clerkenwell Rd., and continuing thence as St. J. Street Rd. to the Angel at Islington. It was the main road from the City for travellers to the north. At No. 16 is still to be found the Cross Keys Tavern, on the E. side of the St. further on is Red Bull Yard, which marks the site of the Red Bull Playhouse, q.v. Hicks' Hall, the sessions house of the County of Middlesex, from which the milestones on the Gt. North Rd. were measured, was near the entrance of St. J. 's Lane: it was built in 1612 and pulled down in 1782 the site is marked by a mural tablet. The name of the street was derived from the neighbouring Priory of St. J. In Barry's Ram iv., Beard says, "I now will trudge to St. J.-st. to inform the Lady Sommerfield where thou art." Taylor, in Carrier's Cosmographie, says, "The carrier of Daintree doth lodge every Friday night at the Cross Keys in St. J.'s St." Webster, in Monuments, speaks of "the now demolished house" of the Knights of St. J. of Jerusalem" in St. J.'s St.

JOHN'S (ST.) CATHEDRAL
The cathedral ch. of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem at Malta. It was built in 1580 by John de la Cassiere, the Grand Master. It contains many tombs of the Grand Masters and Knights of the Order. In B. & F. Malta iv. 1, Oriana, having received a sleeping potion, like Juliet, "is buried in her family's monument in the temple of St. John."

JOHN'S, ST., CHESTER
An ancient ch. in the S.E. corner of the city, near the Dee. It is Norman in style, and was for a time used as the cathedral during the 11th cent. In Munday's John Kent i., Chester says, "At St. J. shall be solemnized the nuptials of your Honors and these virgins for to that ch. Edgar, once England's k., was by 8 kings rowed royally on St. John Baptist day."

JOHN'S (ST.) COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE
Founded by the Lady Margaret, Countess of Richmond, in 1511, on the site of a priory of St. John the Evangelist dissolved in the 2nd year of Henry VIII. The 2nd court was built mainly by Mary, Countess of Shrewsbury, 1599�. The College stands between St. J. St. and the river, next to Trinity. St. J. plays a distinguished part in the history of the English drama. John Bale was one of its earliest students. Robert Greene took his degree there in 1578. Thomas Nash graduated there in 1585, but was sent down for some act of insubordination: it is said for refusing to act in a play Terminus et non Terminus . He bore no malice, however, for in his Lenten, p. 308, he says of Roger Ascham: "He was a St. J. man in Cambridge, in which house I once took up my inn for 7 years together lacking a quarter, and yet love it still, for it is, and ever was, the sweetest nurse of knowledge in all that University." Ben Jonson is said to have been at St. J., but the evidence is far from conclusive.

  • Thomas Legge's Ricardus Tertius (1573, etc.)
  • the Plutus of Aristophanes, in Greek (1536) (the earliest definite record of a performance in Cambridge)
  • Thomas Watson's Absolom ( circa 1545)
  • Abraham Fraunce's
    • Victoria (1575)
    • Hymenaeus (1578ץ)
    • Alba,
    • Ajax Flaggelifer,
    • Matthew Gwinne's Vertumnus,
    • Daniel's Queen's Arcadia,
    • and an open-air interlude on the lines of the witches' prophecy in Macbeth, which may have suggested the treatment of the subject by Shakespeare the next year.
    • Philomela,
    • Time's Complaint,
    • Seven Days of the Week,
    • Philomathes, and
    • Ira seu Tumulus Fortunes.

    JOHN'S (ST.) HEAD
    Sign of a tavern in Lond. in St. Martyn's Lane, Aldersgate. In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, Busie says, "You shall with me to the St. J. H. there is a cup of pure Canary."

    JOHN'S (ST.), PRIORY OF
    The Priory of St. John of Jerusalem in Clerkenwell, founded in 1100 by Jordan Briset for the Knights Hospitallers, and endowed with the revenues of the Knights Templars when that Order was dissolved in 1324. It stood on what is now St. J. Square, and St. J. Gate was the gate-house of the Priory. The Order was very wealthy, and its Prior was Primus Baro Angliae. It was suppressed in 1541, and the buildings passed to the Crown. They were bequeathed by Henry VIII to the Lady Mary, afterwards Q., but in the reign of Edward VI Somerset got hold of them and blew a large part up with gunpowder in order to use the stones for his new mansion in the Strand. The Gatehouse has now returned to its original owners, and is the head office of the St. John Ambulance Association. In Bale's Laws iv., Infidelity has a pardon in his sleeve "from St. J. Friary." In Straw iii., the Mayor says, "The rebels are defacing houses of hostelity, St. J. in Smithfield, the Savoy, and such like." The reference is to the preceptory of the Priory, which was burnt by the rabble of Wat Tyler and Jack Straw. The ch. of St. John Clerkenwell, in St. J. Square, occupies its site, and in the foundations are some of the stones of the original ch. It is not exactly in Smithfield, but a little way North. In Day's B. Beggar i., Cardinal Beaufort says, "Gloster, thou wrong'st me, withold'st St. Johnses Look to 't for fear when I get entry I pull not down the Castle o'er thine ears." Gloster replies, "Cardinal to spite thee I'll keep Elinor, And wed her in St. Johnses." Later the Cardinal threatens, "I'll rouse you and your minions Out of St. Johnses ere a week be spent." The reference appears to be to the Priory. The dist. round the Priory was called St. J. In Look about v., Skink, who is wanted by the police, complains, "There's a rogue in a red cap, he's run from St. J. after me." In Middleton's Mad World iii. 2, the Courtezan, supposed to be dying, sends her commendations "to all my good cousins in Clerkenwell and St. J." The neighbourhood had a bad reputation. In Randolph's Muses iv. 3, Plus brings before the magistrate "a gentlewoman of St. Joans, is charged with dishonesty."

    JOHN'S (ST.) WOOD
    (formerly GREAT ST. J. WOOD). A wood lying W. of Regent's Park, Lond., belonging to the Priors of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. On the suppression of the Priory in 1541 it fell into the possession of the Crown, and was used as a hunting ground. During the last 100 years it has become a populous residential suburb, specially affected by artists. In Jonson's Tub ii. 1, Hilts says, "My capt. and myself . . . at the corner of St. J. Wood, Some mile W. o' this town [ i.e. Pancras] were set upon By a sort of country fellows that not only Beat us, but robbed us most sufficiently." In Jonson's Magnetic v. 5, Sir Moth tells of a poor squire that would walk in his sleep "to St. J Wood And Waltham Forest, scape by all the ponds And ditches in the way."

    JOPPA
    (now JAFFA). A spt. on the coast of Palestine, 30 m. N.W. of Jerusalem, of which it is the port. The harbour is little more than an open roadstead, but as there is no other S. of the Bay of Acre it has always been the usual outlet from S. Palestine. In Greene and Lodge's Looking Glass iii. 1, 956, Jonas says, "My mind misgives to J. will I fly, And for a while to Tharsus shape my course" (see Jonah i. 3). In Downfall Huntington ii. 1, Prince John says, "Here are letters from His Majesty Sent out of J. in the Holy Land." Richd. I recovered J. from Saladin in 1191. In Bacchus, the 11th guest was "a Jew born in J. he had to name Christopher Crabface, a man famous in astrology."

    JORDAN
    R. in Palestine running S. from Lake Huleh, through the Sea of Galilee, into the Dead Sea. In it our Lord was baptised. In Bale's Promises vii., Pater Coelestis says to John the Baptist, "Thou shalt wash him [Jesus] among them in J., a flood not far from Jerusalem." In Peele's Bethsabe iii. 3, Cusay advises David "To pass the river J. presently." In Harrowing of Hell 106, John says, "Ich am Johan That thee followed in flum J." In York M. P. xxi. 54, the Angel says, "My lord Jesus shall come this day Fro Galylee unto this flood Ye Jourdane call." In Spenser, F. Q. i. 2, 30, the Well of Life "Both Silo. .. and J. did excel." Milton, P. L. xii. 145, mentions "the double-founted stream J. [as] the true limit eastward" of the land of Promise. The allusion is to the idea that the J. was formed by the confluence of 2 streams, the Jor and the Dan! In iii. 535 more correctly, Paneas is spoken of as "the fount of J. 's flood." In P. R. i. 24, it is related how Jesus came from Nazareth "to the flood J." to be baptised. In 119, Satan, in quest of our Lord, "to the coast of J . . . . directs his easy steps." In 329 the scene of the Baptism is described as "the ford Of J." In ii. 25, the disciples consult "on the bank of J., by a creek, Where winds with reeds and osiers whispering play." In iii. 438, our Lord recalls how "the Red Sea and J. once he [God] cleft, When to the Promised Land their fathers passed" (see Joshua iii.).

    The use of J. for a chamber-pot may be derived from its being employed as the name of the bottles in which pilgrims brought water from the river J., but it is not at all certain. In H4 A. ii. 1, 22, the carrier complains that the Rochester innkeepers "will allow us ne'er a J." In H4 B. ii. 4, 37, Falstaff orders, "Empty the J." In Thracian iv. 2, the Clown says, "Behold your sweet phisnomy in the clear streams of the river J." with an obvious double entendre. In a song in Jonson's Augurs, we have, "My lady will come with a bowl and a broom And her handmaid with a jorden." Earle, in Microcosmography xiii., describing a tavern scene, says, "The Js., like swelling rivers, overflow their banks."

    J. Almond is probably a corruption of Jardin (Garden) Almond. In Field's Amends iii. 3, Bold mentions amongst the ingredients of a night-mask, "J. almonds, blanched and ground, a quartern."

    JORPATA
    ( i.e. JOTAPATA now KHURBET JEFAT). A City of Galilee, taken by Vespasian A.D. 67 after a fine defence. It lies abt. 20 m. due E. of the promontory of Carmel. In Heming's Jewes Trag. 82 1, Vespasian asks "How far are we now from J.?"

    JOSAPHAT, VALLEY OF
    The ravine between Jerusalem and the Mt. of Olives, on the E. and S. sides of the city. It is often called the Valley of the Kedron, from the brook that runs down it. From Joel iii. 2, 12, 13, it was inferred that the Last Judgment would take place there. It contained several places of interest to pilgrims, such as the place of the stoning of Stephen, the Garden of Gethsemane, the pool of Siloam, and the so-called tomb of Absalom. The ch. of the tomb of the Virgin marks the traditional site of her assumption, and is just N. of Gethsemane. In Piers C. xxi. 413, our Lord says that he will drink no more wine "til the vendage [ i.e. vintage] valle in the vale of Iosaphat, And drynke ryght rype most [must] resurreccio mortuorum." The Palmer, in J. Heywood's Four PP. i., says, "To J. and Olyvete On foot, God wot, I went right bare." In York M. P. xlvi. 97, which describes the appearance of the Virgin to St. Thomas and her assumption, Thomas says, "This is the Vale of J. in jury so gent."

    JUBALTER
    (= GIBRALTAR, q.v.). In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 3, Tamburlaine has a vision of reigning from Mexico "unto the straits of J." In Tamb. B. i. 3, Usumcasanes reports, "We kept the narrow strait of J."

    JUDAEA
    The S. of the 3 divisions of Palestine in the 1st cent., lying W. of the Dead Sea. It corresponded roughly to the territory of the tribes of Judah and Simeon. In Greene and Lodge's Looking Glass i. 1, Rasni, K. of Assyria, says, "I have made J.'s monarch flee the field." This was not true: in the time of Jonah ( i.e. the reign of Jeroboam II in Israel) the Assyrians had not yet attacked Judah. In Greene's Friar ix., Bacon promises Frederick a rich feast, including "cates of J." The passage is corrupt: nothing was imported from J. except balm, and it has been suggested that we should read: "balm of J." In Nabbes' Bride iv. 1, Horten says, "Yet we must from Memphis and J. Fetch balsam, though sophisticate." In Mariam i. 1, Mariam says, "Yet had I rather much a milkmaid be Than be the monarch of J.'s queen." In Candlemas, p. 18, Miles says to Herod, "Through Jerusalem and Jude your will we have wrought." In York M. P. xvii. 120, the 1st K. says of our Lord, "He shall be k. Of Jewes and of Jude." Milton, P. R. iii. 157, speaks of J. as being reduced under Roman yoke. In S. A. 252, Samson relates how "the Philistines . . . Entered J., seeking me." See Judges xv. 9.

    JUDAH
    The 4th son of Jacob and Leah, and the ancestor of the tribe of that name. It had assigned to it on the conquest of Canaan the dist. in S. Syria between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean, though it never succeeded in occupying the coastal dist., which was held firmly by the Philistines. After the Babylonish captivity, the great majority of the returning exiles belonged to the tribe of J., and the name Jew came to be equivalent to Hebrew. In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 1, Nathan says to David, "Thus saith the Lord thy God [I gave thee], J. and Jerusalem withal." In his Alcazar iii. 1, 26, the Legate says, "His Majesty [the K. of Spain] doth promise to resign The titles of the Islands of Moloccus That by his royalty in J. he commands." But we should certainly read India for J. In King Leir, Haz., p. 376, Leir says to Cordella, "The blessing which the God of Abraham gave Unto the tribe of J. light on thee" (see Gen. xlix. 9㪤). In York M. P. xii. 114, the Prologue says, "He [ i.e. Jacob] says the sceptre shall not pass Fro Juda land of Israell Or he come that God ordained has." In Milton, P. L. i. 457, it is related how "Ezekiel . . . . surveyed the dark idolatries Of alienated J." (Ezekiel viii, 14). In P. R. ii. 440, David is called "the shepherd lad Whose offspring on the throne of J. sat So many ages." In 424, it is related how Antipater "his son Herod placed on J. 's throne." This was Herod the Gt., who was made K. of J. 40 B.C. In iii. 282, it is recalled how the Babylonians led captive "J. and all thy father David's house." In S. A. 256, Samson relates how "the men of J." betrayed him (Judges xv. 9) and adds "Had J. that day joined, or one whole tribe, They had by this possessed the towers of Gath." In 976, Dalila expects that her name will be detested "In Dan, in J., and the bordering tribes." In Nativity Ode 221, it is said that Osiris "feels from Judas land The dreaded infant's hand." Bethlehem was in J. Juda is one of the characters in Darius.

    JUDITH
    A bookseller's sign in Lond., showing J. with the head of Holofernes in her hand. Skelton's Elynour Rumming was "Printed at London by Richard Lant, for Henry Tab, dwelling in Paul's Churchyard at the sign of J." (n.d.).

    JULIO
    (= GYULA). A town in Hungary, 120 m. S.E. of Buda-Pesth. Heylyn tells how it was betrayed to the Turks by its governor, Nicolas Keretsken, who was punished for his perfidy by Selimus by being put in a barrel stuck full of nails and rolled up and down till he died. The scene of Whetstone's Promos is laid "in the city of J., sometimes under the dominion of Corvinus, k. of Hungary and Boemia." Corvinus reigned 1458�. Shakespeare, in Meas., transfers the scene to Vienna.

    JULIUS, TEMPLE OF
    Probably the Temple of Venus Genetrix, erected by Julius Caesar in the Forum Julium, is intended. It lay N.E. of the Forum Romanum, in the angle formed by the present Via de Marforio and Via del Ghetarello. It was begun in 48 B.C. and dedicated in 46 B.C. In May's Agrippina i. 1, 338, amongst the great buildings of Rome are mentioned "Julius' temple, Claudius' aquaeducts."

    JUPITER STATOR, TEMPLE OF
    At Rome, built by Romulus at the spot where the Romans rallied when on the point of defeat by the Sabines. It stood by the Porta Mugionis, at the junction of the Via Sacra with the Nova Via. It was destroyed in Nero's Fire, but was rebuilt. In Jonson's Catiline, the scene of iv. 2 and v. 6 is "the T. of J. S." In iv. 2, the Praetor says, "Fathers, take your places Here in the house of J. the Stayer."


    Battle of St. Jacob, 26 May 1444 (Switzerland) - History

    Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn sent a company of Royal Marines up the St. Marys River, reportedly to destroy Archibald Clark's sawmill near present-day Folkston, Georgia. Also, they were possibly after the U.S. "works," maybe the American post at Camp Pinckney near Coleran.

    Regardless, it was a huge operation, with the British force numbering some 52. They proceeded upriver by water on Feb. 23, 1815, in seven barges and one gig under Commander Charles George Rodney Phillot of the HMS Primrose and Cmdr. David Euren Bartholomew of the HMS Erebus.

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    Patrick Gass, member Lewis & Clark Expedition and War of 1812 veteran. See June 4, 5 and 7 posts.
    Old Fort Madison, Iowa. See May 25 posts. (Great River Road)
    Stephen Decatur statue in Decatur, Illinois. See Mat 11 and 12 posts. (Waymarking)
    The Sailing Masters of 1812 Fife and Drum Corps. See May 6 and 7 posts.
    The corrected John Gwinn gravestone. See April 20 post.
    Captain John Gwinn and wife Caroline. Gwinn commanded the USS Constitution when he died in 1849. See April posts.
    HMS Endymion and USS President exchange broadsides in a battle that occurred after the war was over. This was the battle where Richard Dale was wounded and lost his leg before dying in Bermuda. See March 2 and 4 posts.
    One of the earliest-known watercolors of the USS Constitution (1803) that was acquired at the auction. See posts of Oct. 24, 26 and Nov. 10. John Gwinn also commanded this ship. See March 28 post. George Campbell Read served on it in War of 1812. See March 12-15 posts. And May 13 post..
    Battle of Lake Erie.

    Edward The Elder / Edgiva

    Husband: Edward The Elder
    Born: ABT 0870at:
    Married: at:
    Died: 0924at:
    Father: Alfred The Great King West Saxons
    Mother: Ealhswith
    Wife: Edgiva
    Born: at:
    Died: at:
    Father:
    Mother:
    Children
    Name: Edmund I The Elder
    Born: 0939at:
    Married: at:
    Died: 0946at:
    Spouses: St. Elgiva
    Name: Edred
    Born: at:
    Died: at:
    Spouses:
    Name: Edburh
    Born: at:
    Died: at:
    Spouses:
    Name: Edgiva
    Born: at:
    Died: at:
    Spouses:

    Pedigree Chart for: Edward The Elder

    Pedigree Chart for: Edgiva


    Political career

    Beginning in 2002, Nehr served two terms as City Commissioner for the city of Tarpon Springs, Florida, and on the Board of Directors of the Tarpon Springs Historical Society. He is also on the Board of the local Rotary Club. He was the organizer of Tarpon Springs' first Military Appreciation Day Parade. He served also as a Guardian ad litem in the State of Florida in Pinellas County. [3]

    In the 2006 election, Nehr narrowly defeated Countryside High School teacher Carl Zimmerman to become the Florida State House representative for District 48. [4] During the 2007 session, he served on the Committee on Ethics & Elections, where he was vice chair. He won re-election to the Florida House on November 4, 2008 again by a narrow margin (51% to 49%) over Zimmerman. [5] He was re-elected in 2010, defeating challenger Tom McKone, with 61.5% of the vote. [6] In 2012, the district was renumbered as the 65th district Nehr narrowly lost to Zimmerman, 54%-49%. [7]

    In 2014, Nehr was an unsuccessful candidate for a seat on the Pinellas County Commission he finished second of seven candidates in the Republican Primary election, with 22% of the vote. [8]


    Due to the ongoing travel restrictions around Covid-19, please be aware that visiting a CWGC cemetery or memorial may not always be advisable. Please abide by the local advice for the region you wish to visit.

    How to search

    Our database contains information on about 23,000 cemeteries and memorials worldwide where Commonwealth casualties from the two world wars are commemorated.

    It is possible to search for our cemeteries and memorials by name, location, war, and even size.

    Country and location and war are drop down lists from which you can select the desired country or location or war you wish to search by.

    If you know the name of the location you wish to visit, you can enter it into the location field. An exact match is not required as if you do not enter an exact name, you will be presented with a list of possible matches.

    The number of causalities field can be used in combination with the above or on its own to search for and find locations both large and small.

    The number of causalities field can be used in combination with the above or on its own to search for and find locations both large and small.

    The perfect starting point when visiting the cemeteries and memorials of the Western Front.

    No trip to the Western Front would be complete without seeing our visitors centre in Arras, France.


    Community news for Enfield edition

    ENFIELD - Congratulations to Jamie Gugliotti and Katie DeVito, Grade 6 students, for their winning essays at this year's Senator John A. Kissel Essay Contest. Students were asked to write about "Who is your favorite person who has ever lived in Connecticut."

    Jamie's winning essay presented Governor Ella Grasso and Katie's Runner Up essay presented Geno Auriemma, UCONN women's basketball coach. The Award Ceremony was held on June 22, at the Enfield Town Hall.

    Pictured from left to right: Jamie Gugliotti, Katie DeVito and Senator John Kissel.

    SBM Charitable Foundation Scholarship awards

    AREAWIDE - At its annual Scholarship Reception held on June 9, the SBM Charitable Foundation ("SBMCF") recently awarded 118 college scholarships, totaling $213,500 to area students. There were 39 new recipients and 85 returning awardees, including seven graduate students. Beginning with the fall 2015 semester, the students, residents of 40 Connecticut cities and towns, will be enrolled in 16 Connecticut colleges and universities.

    Local student recipients are: Jennifer Piekos of Broad Brook, Shea Gelsomino of East Windsor, Kyla Pokorny and Jessie Tetreault, both of Enfield and Kiernan Wyllie and Nick Zachary, both of Somers.

    Pictured: Front Row (kneeling/sitting): Michelle Medina, Amanda Cabral, Brennan Schliphack, Seamus McKeever, Courtney Binkowski, Jenna Ethridge. Second Row: Huda Samakaab, Kyla Pokorny, Ethan Freund, Tess Michaud, Stacy-Ann Wallen, Nina Betancourt, Peyton Suggs, Lisa Panyanouvong, Nicole Medina, Jocelyn Guerraz, Natalka Tuczkewycz. Third Row: Stacy Bawuah, Emmalee Stewart, Sophia Pierre, AnnRichelle Akko, Cassidy Martin, Sabiha Tarafdar, Maricelis Abreu, Shawn Barrett, Sarah Mangiafico, Sasha Rhodd, Caitlyn Eaton, Shannon Hill, Sarah Froehlich, Julia Zagaja, Elaina Giordano, Claudia Paszek. Fourth Row: Joan Bosma, Julia Luppi, Nicole Green, Jessica Boryczki, Kaitlin Brosnihan, Joseph Stickles, Amanda Vollaro, Jahmal Gibson-Lindsay, Brendan Hughes, Lauren Biernacki, Stephen Sam, Anne Michaud, Brian Nwafor, Samantha Grajewski, Natalie Myette, Nikki Pirtel, Matthew Garneau, Leyda Ramos, Benjamin Adams, Kaitlyn LaBonté.

    The SBM Charitable Foundation is located at 935 Main St. in downtown Manchester. For more information visit http://www.sbmfoundation.org.

    Programs at the Enfield Public Library

    ENFIELD – The Enfield Public Library is offering the following programs for kids. The library is located at 104 Middle Road. Call 860-763-7518 for more details or visit the library's website: http://www.enfieldpubliclibrary.org.

    Don't forget to sign up for summer reading and earn prizes all summer long.

    Teens ages 13-18 are invited to drop-in to watch "The Avengers" rated PG-13 on Friday, July 17, at 6 p.m. Earth's mightiest heroes must come together and learn to fight as a team if they are to stop Loki (Thor's stepbrother) and his alien army from destroying the world. Movie running time is 143 minutes.

    Animal Heroes, July 27, beginning at 2 p.m. The program will feature animals who live heroic lives and explore how a variety of them keep us healthy by eating disease-carrying insects. Participants will learn how some tortoises dig burrows that provide homes for hundreds of other species during at least one stage of their life-cycle. Free tickets for children 4 and older will be available beginning July 20.

    Evening Rhyme Time, July 28, from 6:30 to 7:30 p.m. The drop-in program designed to promote early language skills for ages birth to 24 months old, will feature nursery rhymes, songs and finger plays.

    Aimee from Jumping Clay will teach the basics of molding clay so kids can make a police officer or a firefighter magnet on Wednesday, July 29, at 9:30 or 10:30 a.m. Free tickets for kids ages 4 and older will be available beginning July 20.

    Enfield Loaves and Fishes Soup Kitchen

    ENFIELD - The Enfield Loaves and Fishes Soup Kitchen, 28 Prospect St., is seeking volunteers to help serve meals and perform other duties. The days and hours are Monday, Tuesday and Friday, from 3 to 6 p.m. They are also in need of garden vegetables for donation. Drop-off time is Monday to Friday, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.

    Anyone in need of a free meal is also invited to come in Sunday through Friday, 4 to 5 p.m. and Saturday, 11 a.. to 12:30 p.m. For information, call Priscilla Brayson at 860-741-0226.

    CRT serves meals under State Department of Education Program

    AREAWIDE - Now that school is out, free meals and children's activities are being offered at hundreds of locations throughout the state as part of the federally funded Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). Thousands of children who are eligible for free and reduced-price meals during the school year can enjoy free, nutritious meals as well as supervised activities.

    Community Renewal Team is serving meals at the following locations:

    Town Hall Annex, 25 School St. IN East Windsor. Lunch 11:30 a.m.-1 p.m. through Aug. 21, Monday-Friday.

    St. Patrick Church, 64 Pearl St., Enfield. Lunch 12-1 p.m. Monday – Friday, through Aug. 21.

    Enfield Housing, Fresh Water Pond Apartments, 4 Thistle Lane (residents only). Lunch 12-1 p.m., Monday – Friday, thorough Aug. 21

    Supervised youth activities are provided at many of these sites, including crafts, reading/literacy enrichment, nutrition activities and fitness classes. Under the program, which is operated by the Connecticut State Department of Education, nutritious meals are provided for free to all children 18 years and under.

    There are no meals on the July 4th holiday. No registration is required for summer meals. For a complete statewide listing check http://www.CTSummerMeals.org or call toll free 2-1-1.

    Enfield Recreation Department

    ENFIELD – The Enfield Recreation Department is offering the following summer programs. For more information, contact the Enfield Recreation Department at 860-253-6420 or visit http://www.enfield-ct.gov/recreation . The Recreation Office is located at 19 North Main St. with hours of operation Monday - Friday, 9 a.m. – 5 p.m.

    Find Enfield's superhero librarians, beginning July 20 at more than 20 locations around town. Participants will be entered to win prizes. Contest ends Aug. 11 and winners are announced Aug. 12.

    An afternoon at the Pearl Street Library with Mr. Magic, Rich Rothstein, July 20, beginning at 2 p.m. Free tickets for kids ages 4 and older.

    Tie Dye Wednesday, July 22, beginning at 10 a.m. Participants are invited to bring a t-shirt or other clothing item and add some color to their wardrobe.

    CactusHead Puppets, July 23, beginning at 10:30 a.m. Free tickets available for children 4 and older.

    PJ's and an evening of story time at the Enfield Public Library, July 23, beginning at 6:30 p.m. Participants are invited to wear pajamas, bring a stuffed animal and hear a story or make a craft and dance. Recommended for ages 3 to 7.

    LEGO and DUPLO building event at the Enfield Public Library, July 24, 3:45 to 4:45 p.m. Drop-in program for fans to work independently or together.

    Movie matinee featuring Paddington, the story of the comic adventures of a your Peruvian bear that travels to the city in search of a home, July 24, beginning at 2 p.m. at the Pearl Street Library. Bring your own treats or and blankets.

    Bus Trips - The Enfield Recreation Department is currently accepting registrations for three upcoming bus trips. Two trips are to see the Boston Red Sox and the third is to see the New York Yankees. Trips include round trip motorcoach transportation and game ticket.

    Free Petting Zoo at Enfield Historical Society's Old Town Hall Museum

    ENFIELD - There will be a free petting zoo at the Enfield Historical Society's Old Town Hall Museum on Sunday, July 19, from 2 to 4:30 p.m. Spend an afternoon at the "farm" without all of the hard work. Come to the Old Town Hall to pet and feed friendly rabbits, guinea pigs, chickens, goats, lambs and more. Kids of all ages will love this event. Visit the Old Town Hall Museum, free admission.

    Our Redeemer Preschool registration

    ENFIELD – Our Redeemer Preschool, 20 North St, Enfield, provide a Christian learning environment, hands on creative learning, weekly themes, show and tell, certified teachers, small teacher/child ratio, holiday shows, cap and gown graduation program. This year marks the 30th Anniversary of the school. Call 860-749-3167 for a tour and more information.

    Fall soccer registration

    ENFIELD - The Enfield Soccer Club is accepting registration for the fall soccer season. Children ages 3 ½ to 16 are eligible for recreational soccer. The deadline for registration is Aug. 12.

    For information and registration, call 860-631-1064 or visit http://www.enfieldsoccer.org.

    AREAWIDE – The following area students were named to the Dean's List at the University of Connecticut for the spring semester.

    ENFIELD : Rachael Agruso, Caroline Alexander, Sean Bridges, Kevin Broems, Brett Colon, Sarah Coughlin, Jordan D'Angelo, Cori DeLorge, Tessla Donovan, Allison Dufour, Kristen Ehrhardt, Brooke Ellis, Patrick Hannon, Kayla Kamerer, Faye Koenigsmark, Kyle Lundgren, Ian Maynard, Matthew McKinney, Jacob Mikullitz, Catherine Oliver, Mayur Patel, Richard Pizzale, Richard Pizzale, Jennifer Reinhard, Katherine Saltzgiver, Brandon Schafer, Akanksha Singh, Heather Souer, Jenna Stone, Kyle Such

    SOMERS: Adam Boccaccio, Aaron Elman, Nicole Gay, Samantha Gay, Thomas Gay, Ryan King, Sara Laplante, JustinLiquori, RachelMancini, Christopher Mashiak, Brian Milliken, Connor Mitchell, Anthony Mottolese, Kathryn O'Connor, Rosemary Richi, Mary Rockett, Lauren VanFossan, Karisa Welch.


    1991 Baseball Draft

    1991 Amateur Baseball Draft by Baseball Almanac | Baseball Draft Menu

    1991 Baseball Draft | Research by Baseball Almanac, Inc.

    Did you know that there have been twenty-one players who have been drafted (since the baseball draft began in 1965) then went straight to the Major Leagues without first playing on a Minor League team?

    Being selected with the first round, first pick, as the number one draft pick, is quite a baseball feat, but not every one of them has actually made it to the big leagues! Review those who did, those who didn't, which catcher was the first one ever selected first overall, which catcher was first that didn't make it and the first one that did, plus every other draft type (secondary drafts) along with information about which ones made it there as well.

    The Baseball Almanac Draft Register is completely comprehensive and includes data on every single player ever drafted in baseball history, more than 65,000+ baseball draft picks spanning 40+ years of baseball draft history.


    Hra&scarone (HrascheLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 56.) is a settlement in the Municipality of Medvode in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia.

    Hrovača (KrobatschLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 50.) is a settlement immediately to the southeast of the town of Ribnica in southern Slovenia.


    Saturday, March 8, 2008

    Letter urges Pope to protest war during U.S. visit

    A letter with over 1250 signatures has been delivered to Pope Benedict XVI in advance of his scheduled April visit to the United States. Encouraged by the Pope’s public statements “that there were not sufficient reasons to unleash a war in Iraq,” the letter asks that refuse to visit President Bush at the White House as a sign of his protest. In the event that the meeting takes place, the letter asks that he speak “as a prophet should - issuing a warning and an invitation to repentance.”
    The letter makes special note of the fact that Pope Benedict will be in the United States on his birthday, and reminds him of the many children of Iraq who will not live to celebrate theirs as a result of the current war.
    Those signing the letter reflect an extraordinary range of individuals - Catholic and non-Catholic, religious and lay people, academics and activists - united in their expectation that the Pope will not let the war pass in silence

    [text of letter and signatures below]
    To His Holiness, Pope Benedict XVI Most Holy Father: In your own words, “today we should be asking ourselves if it is still licit to admit the very existence of a ‘just war’.” Yet, during your upcoming visit to the United States, you are planning to meet with President George W. Bush, whose empty justifications for the violence in Iraq lead to increasing numbers of dead, injured and displaced people. Iraqi civilians still endure the “continual slaughter” which you described in your 2007 Easter Sunday address.Shortly before the U.S. invaded Iraq, you rightly declared that “there were not sufficient reasons to unleash a war.” You’ve also called attention to the terrible new technologies which cause indiscriminate destruction. Five years later, how much more reason you have to call for an immediate end to this war, and to refuse to meet with the President of the United States until that is accomplished.If you kneel in grief and outrage before the cross of the tortured Christ, can you offer your blessing to a head of government who excuses the most terrible abuses of human minds and bodies as “legal”?

    If meet with him you must, then meet as a prophet should - issuing a warning and an invitation to repentance. Courtesy cannot be used as an evasion of our biblical faith. Ezekiel was repeatedly reminded of his responsibility to admonish those doing evil if he desired to escape sharing in the responsibility for their sins. Shouldn’t any of us who recognize the horror of what is happening in Iraq be condemned if we are silent?

    List of site sources >>>


    Watch the video: EU4 - What if Every Trade Node Was a Nation in 1444? (January 2022).