The story

Pharaoh Seti I - Father of Egyptian Greatness, Nicky Nielsen


Pharaoh Seti I - Father of Egyptian Greatness, Nicky Nielsen

Pharaoh Seti I - Father of Egyptian Greatness, Nicky Nielsen

Seti I was the second pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty, the second of the New Kingdom. His father, who founded the dynasty, only ruled for a couple of years, so Seti’s reign was the first significant one of the dynasty, lasting for a decade. Seti inherited a kingdom that was to a certain extent still recovering from the reign of Akhenaten, the pharaoh who had overthrown the ancient gods of Egypt and attempted to convert the country to the worship of the Aten, or sun disc. Although he had died over forty years before Seti came to the throne, Akhenaten’s reign was followed by two obscure rules, and the famous boy pharaoh Tutankhamun, and the return to a sense of normality only began under Horemheb, the last ruler of the 18th Dynasty.

Seti’s story reminds me of later ‘camp’ emperors of the Roman Empire, men who came to the throne because of their military ability and not because of any direct link to the previous emperors. In this case his father, Ramesses I, was a soldier and administrator who served under Horemheb, and who was eventually chosen as his heir. Seti wasn’t born as a prince, so will have had a relatively normal life before his father became heir. Unsurprisingly we find that many of Seti’s acts were performed to enhance a sense of continuity with the ‘good’ pharaohs before Akhenaten, in particular Ahemhotep III and Thutmosis III, whose prenomens Seti combined as part of his complex full title.

The book is well structured. We begin with a historical background, tracing the development of Ancient Egypt. This is followed by a look at the period from the start of Akhenaten’s reign to the start of Seti’s own rule. They story of his reign is split into four parts, looking at his military campaigns, construction projects, ordinary life and his tomb. Finally there is a look at how Seti re-entered the historical record (both in documentary terms, and physically, with the identification of his mummy).

For me the most fascinating aspect of this study is the quite amazing amount of detail we have about some aspects of Seti’s life and of the lives of many of his subjects. There is even one period in his reign where we can construct his weekly itinerary, as the records of the palace baker have survived, and they tell us where the Pharaoh’s bread was being sent! We also have a random, but for the period quite remarkable, selection of documents about the lives of relatively ordinary Egyptians – some from surviving working documents, others from records of their achievements in their tombs. These fragments give us a feel for some of the details of ordinary life that we don’t get again until the Roman period.

I might quibble slightly about the subtitle – ‘father of Egyptian Greatness’ – Seti’s reign actually comes rather late in day for that to be the case – starting some 1,400 years after the rise of the Old Kingdom, and only 200 years before the end of the New Kingdom and the start of the final decline of Ancient Egypt as an independent power. Otherwise this is a fascinating study of one of the more successful of the later pharaohs.

Chapters
1 - Setting the Stage
2 - The Family Business
3 - Smiting Foreign Lands
4 - Houses of Life and Eternity
5 - The Supporting Cast
6 - An Eternal Resting Place
7 - Rediscovering a Ruler

Author: Nicky Nielsen
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 192
Publisher: Pen & Sword History
Year: 2018



Pharaoh Seti I

Pharaoh Seti I ruled Egypt for only 11 years (1290-1279 BC), but his reign marked a revival of Egyptian military and economic power, as well as cultural and religious life. Seti was born the son of a military officer in northern Egypt, far from the halls of power in Memphis and Thebes. However, when the last king of the 18th Dynasty, Horemheb, died without an heir, Seti&rsquos father was named king. He ruled for only two years before dying of old age, leaving Seti in charge of an ailing superpower. Seti set about rebuilding Egypt after a century of dynastic struggles and religious unrest. He reasserted Egypt&rsquos might with a series of campaigns across the Levant, Libya and Nubia. He despatched expeditions to mine for copper, gold, and quarry for stone in the deserts, laying the foundations for one of the most ambitious building projects of any Egyptian Pharaoh and his actions allowed his son, Ramesses the Great to rule in relative peace and stability for 69 years, building on the legacy of his father.


Pharaoh Seti I - Father of Egyptian Greatness, Nicky Nielsen - History

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Pharaoh Seti I ruled Egypt for only 11 years (1290-1279 BC), but his reign marked a revival of Egyptian military and economic power, as well as cultural and religious life. Seti was born the son of a military officer in northern Egypt, far from the halls of power in Memphis and Thebes. However, when the last king of the 18th Dynasty, Horemheb, died without an heir, Seti&rsquos father was named king. He ruled for only two years before dying of old age, leaving Seti in charge of an ailing superpower. Seti set about rebuilding Egypt after a century of dynastic struggles and religious unrest. He reasserted Egypt&rsquos might with a series of campaigns across the Levant, Libya and Nubia. He despatched expeditions to mine for copper, gold, and quarry for stone in the deserts, laying the foundations for one of the most ambitious building projects of any Egyptian Pharaoh and his actions allowed his son, Ramesses the Great to rule in relative peace and stability for 69 years, building on the legacy of his father.

Great read and great introduction and precursor to Seti I.

Amazon Customer

This book is well-written and covers a lot of information.

Amazon Customer

For me the most fascinating aspect of this study is the quite amazing amount of detail we have about some aspects of Seti’s life and of the lives of many of his subjects. There is even one period in his reign where we can construct his weekly itinerary, as the records of the palace baker have survived, and they tell us where the Pharaoh’s bread was being sent! We also have a random, but for the period quite remarkable, selection of documents about the lives of relatively ordinary Egyptians – some from surviving working documents, others from records of their achievements in their tombs. These fragments give us a feel for some of the details of ordinary life that we don’t get again until the Roman period.

Read the full review here

History of War

This book provides a useful introduction to the Nineteenth Dynasty allowing Seti I to emerge from the long shadow cast by his more famous son.

Ancient Egypt magazine, October/November 2018 – reviewed by Hilary Wilson

About Dr Nicky Nielsen

Dr Nicky Nielsen is a Lecturer in Egyptology at the University of Manchester and has published extensively both in peer-reviewed journals such as Journal of Egyptian Archaeology and Antiquity as well as Egyptology magazines including Papyrus, Nile Magazine and Ancient Egypt Magazine. He is the author of Pharaoh Seti I: Father of Egyptian Greatness (Pen & Sword, 2018) and is a regular contributor to The Conversation. He has on several occasions been accused of being part of a cover up to conceal the alien origins of the pyramids. He is not.


Reviews

About the Author

Dr Nicky Nielsen obtained a BA in Egyptian Archaeology before progressing to his Masters and PhD in Egyptology at Liverpool University. He is now a Lecturer in Egyptology at the University of Manchester, as well as Honorary Fellow at the University of Liverpool and Field Director of the Tell Nabasha archaeological excavation in northeastern Egypt. He has published a number of academic papers as well as articles in popular magazines in the UK, USA and his native Denmark, on topics spanning Egyptology, Roman history, British naval history and Viking culture.


Foreword

Seti, son of Paramessu, was a remarkable man. His biography reads like a blueprint for the ideal dynastic king. Born the son of a soldier, Seti had royalty thrust upon him when his elderly father was unexpectedly gifted the throne of Egypt. After just two years working as vizier and coregent alongside the renamed Ramesses I, Seti was himself crowned king of the Two Lands. He proved to be an ambitious and highly effective monarch: a successful warrior and an accomplished builder. Under his direct command, an aggressive series of military campaigns saw Egypt’s borders secured and Egypt’s military reputation, which had been somewhat tarnished during the Amarna Period and its immediate aftermath, restored to its former glory. Increased stability brought increasing wealth, which allowed Seti to finance a portfolio of ambitious construction projects throughout Egypt. The Temple of Re at Heliopolis, the Temple of Ptah at Memphis and the Temple of Amen at Karnak all benefited from his generosity. At the ancient cemetery site of Abydos, Seti built a unique monument: a subterranean cenotaph linked to an extensive temple whose seven sanctuaries were dedicated to the gods Osiris, Isis, Horus, Amen-Re, Re-Harakhty, Ptah and the deified Seti himself. On the west bank of the Nile, at Thebes, Seti erected a conspicuous memorial temple and, hidden in the nearby Valley of the Kings, he excavated the longest, deepest and most beautifully decorated of all the royal tombs.

After just over a decade on the throne, Seti, still a relatively young man by modern standards, died. As he had planned, his mummified body was buried in an elaborate alabaster sarcophagus in his extensive tomb. The rituals were performed, the tomb door was sealed and Seti’s spirit journeyed into the west, where he transformed from a semi-divine being into a god. Today, Seti’s mummy rests in Cairo Museum where his beautifully preserved head, brutally severed from his body by ancient tomb robbers, represents one of the finest examples of the dynastic embalmer’s art.

I hope that this brief biography is enough to convince the reader that Seti I is a man entirely worthy of detailed study. Why, then, has he been overlooked by historians? The blame lies to a great extent with his son, the much larger-than-life Ramesses II. Ramesses followed his father onto the throne, and ruled Egypt for an almost unbelievable sixty-six years. This gave him sufficient time to impose his name on the Egyptian landscape by both building his own monuments and blatantly ‘borrowing’ the monuments and inscriptions of others. Ramesses cut his hieroglyphs larger and deeper than anyone else, so that by the time of his death his name was written large all over his land. A master of propaganda, he has been able to convince us that he, Ramesses, was and always would be Egypt’s greatest king. With Ramesses usurping the historical limelight, Seti, the man who laid down the foundations for his son’s reign, has been condemned to stand hidden in shadow.

So I am delighted that Nicky Nielsen has undertaken the task of restoring Seti to his rightful place as of one of Egypt’s most successful kings. Setting Seti into his proper historical context, Dr Nielsen provides a scholarly, comprehensive and very readable guide through the intricacies of his family life, his reign and its immediate aftermath. His admiration for Seti and his achievements shines through his writing, making this book an essential read for anyone interested in the development of Egypt’s dynastic age.

Dr Joyce Tyldesley (archaeologist, author and Senior Lecturer in Egyptology at Manchester University), October 2017


Pharaoh Seti I - Father of Egyptian Greatness, Nicky Nielsen - History

1) A History of Bangladesh - Willem van Schendel
Cambridge University Press | 2009 | PDF

Bangladesh is a new name for an old land whose history is little known to the wider world. A country chiefly famous in the West for media images of poverty, underdevelopment, and natural disasters, Bangladesh did not exist as an independent state until 1971.
Показать полностью. Willem van Schendel's history reveals the country's vibrant, colourful past and its diverse culture as it navigates the extraordinary twists and turns that have created modern Bangladesh. The story begins with the early geological history of the delta which has decisively shaped Bangladesh society. The narrative then moves chronologically through the era of colonial rule, the partition of Bengal, the war with Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh as an independent state. In so doing, it reveals the forces that have made Bangladesh what it is today. This is an eloquent introduction to a fascinating country and its resilient and inventive people.

2) Bangladesh: A Political History since Independence - Ali Riaz
I.B. Tauris | 2016 | PDF

Bangladesh is a country of paradoxes. The eighth most populous country of the world, it has attracted considerable attention from the international media and western policy-makers in recent years, often for the wrong reasons: corruption, natural disasters caused by its precarious geographical location, and volatile political situations with several military coups, following its independence from Pakistan in 1971. Institutional corruption, growing religious intolerance and Islamist militancy have reflected the weakness of the state and undermined its capacity. Yet the country has demonstrated significant economic potential and has achieved successes in areas such as female education, population control and reductions in child mortality. Ali Riaz here examines the political processes which engendered these paradoxical tendencies, taking into account the problems of democratization and the effects this has had, and will continue to have, in the wider South Asian region. This comprehensive and unique overview of political and historical developments in Bangladesh since 1971 will provide essential reading for observers of Bangladesh and South Asia.

3) 1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh - Srinath Raghavan
Harvard University Press | 2013 | PDF

The war of 1971 was the most significant geopolitical event in the Indian subcontinent since its partition in 1947. At one swoop, it led to the creation of Bangladesh, and it tilted the balance of power between India and Pakistan steeply in favor of India. The Line of Control in Kashmir, the nuclearization of India and Pakistan, the conflicts in Siachen Glacier and Kargil, the insurgency in Kashmir, the political travails of Bangladesh--all can be traced back to the intense nine months in 1971.

Against the grain of received wisdom, Srinath Raghavan contends that far from being a predestined event, the creation of Bangladesh was the product of conjuncture and contingency, choice and chance. The breakup of Pakistan and the emergence of Bangladesh can be understood only in a wider international context of the period: decolonization, the Cold War, and incipient globalization. In a narrative populated by the likes of Nixon, Kissinger, Zhou Enlai, Indira Gandhi, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Tariq Ali, George Harrison, Ravi Shankar, and Bob Dylan, Raghavan vividly portrays the stellar international cast that shaped the origins and outcome of the Bangladesh crisis.

This strikingly original history uses the example of 1971 to open a window to the nature of international humanitarian crises, their management, and their unintended outcomes.

4) The Separation of East Pakistan: The Rise and Realization of Bengali Muslim Nationalism - Hasan Zaheer
Oxford University Press | 1994 | PDF

To understand the separation of East Pakistan in 1971, it is necessary to put the events of that year into the proper perspective of the unstable relationship between East and West Pakistan from 1947 onwards. Hasan Zaheer examines the genesis of the single state of Pakistan, and analyzes the crises which marked the relations between the two areas from 1947 to the army actions of 1971. The book makes extensive use of primary sources, conversations and interviews with those directly involved in the events of the post army action period, unpublished documents, and the author's own personal experiences. It is a detailed account of events on the national and international fronts, culminating in the surrender of the army in East Pakistan on December 16, 1971.

5) The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760 - Richard M. Eaton
University of California Press | 1996 | PDF

In all of the South Asian subcontinent, Bengal was the region most receptive to the Islamic faith. This area today is home to the world's second- largest Muslim ethnic population. How and why did such a large Muslim population emerge there? And how does such a religious conversion take place? Richard Eaton uses archaeological evidence, monuments, narrative histories, poetry, and Mughal administrative documents to trace the long historical encounter between Islamic and Indic civilizations. Moving from the year 1204, when Persianized Turks from North India annexed the former Hindu states of the lower Ganges delta, to 1760, when the British East India Company rose to political dominance there, Eaton explores these moving frontiers, focusing especially on agrarian growth and religious change.

6) Bangladesh, India and Pakistan: International Relations and Regional Tensions in South Asia - Kathryn Jacques
Palgrave Macmillan UK | 2000 | PDF

This book provides a broad, analytical study of Bangladesh's relationship with India and Pakistan between 1975 and 1990. Bangladesh's role in South Asian international relations has tended to be overlooked and underestimated. The book reveals the complexity of the relationship between Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan and challenges the biased and stereotypical views often encountered regarding Bangladesh's foreign policy. Considerable contemporary evidence is interpreted from a variety of perspectives: domestic, regional, and extra-regional. The evidence is then used to assess the relative significance of these perspectives.

7) Different Nationalisms: Bengal, 1905–1947 - Semanti Ghosh
Oxford University Press | 2016 | PDF

The period between the partition of Bengal in 1905 and the Partition of India in 1947 was witness to a unique experience of 'imagining' nations in Bengal. With neither the Bengali Muslims nor the Bengali Hindus envisioning homogenous ideas about nationhood, many contesting and alternative visions emerged, both within and between the two communities. These 'other' nationalisms were not 'anti-national', but creeds of either a 'federal Indian nation' with 'regional autonomy', or a 'regional nation' on its own strength.

In Different Nationalisms, Semanti Ghosh goes beyond the Muslim-Hindu and nationalism-communalism binaries to reveal an unfamiliar terrain of hidden contestations over the concept of nation in colonial Bengal. For several of these competing ideologies, Partition, rather than being an expected or even desired outcome, was an anti-climax in their long-drawn battle for a nation.

8) The Political History of Muslim Bengal: An Unfinished Battle of Faith - Mahmudur Rahman
Cambridge Scholars Publishing | 2019 | PDF

Bangladesh, the eastern half of earth's largest delta, Bengal, is today an independent country of 163 million people. Among the 98% ethnic Bengali population, above 90 percent practice Islam.

Surprisingly, Buddhism was the predominant religion of the region until the beginning of the 2nd millennium. In the midst of a long and fierce Brahman-Buddhist conflict, political Islam arrived in Bengal in the very early 13th century.

Against the background of the above history, this book tells the story of successive religious and political transformations, touching upon the sensitive subject of Bengali Muslim identity. Encompassing a period of more than a millennium, it narrates a political history beginning with the independent Muslim Sultanate and closing with the 1971 liberation war of Bangladesh. The book concludes by discussing the present day, here termed Authoritarian Secularism.

9) Recasting the Region: Language, Culture, and Islam in Colonial Bengal - Neilesh Bose
Oxford University Press | 2014 | PDF

Recasting the Region studies the trajectories of Muslim Bengali politics and examines the literary and cultural history of Bengali Muslims from the early twentieth century until the 1952 Language Movement. It argues that Muslim political mobilization in late colonial Bengal did not emanate from north Indian calls for a separatist 'Muslim' state of Pakistan, but rather emerged out of a sustained engagement with local Bengali intellectual and literary traditions.

In six chapters, the book features meticulous research on topics like the pursuit of folklore, literary modernism, and intellectual movements in both Dhaka and Kolkata in the late colonial period. Examining language literary texts, the social histories of newspaper and magazine offices, and the writings of Bengali Muslim politicians and intellectuals, the book delves into the meaning of nationalism and decolonization for the Bengali Muslims.

Focusing on the cultural history of the largest Muslim population of the colonial era, the Bengali Muslims, this work utilizes heretofore unexplored Bengali sources as well as offers a new interpretation of the emergence of the state of Pakistan.


Pharaoh Seti I: Father of Egyptian Greatness

First full-length, popular biography of this neglected ruler. Overshadowed by his son, Ramasses II (the Great), he is here given his due for laying the foundations for his son’s greatness.

In stock | Lead Time up to 15 working Days

Pharaoh Seti I ruled Egypt for only 11 years (1290-1279 BC), but his reign marked a revival of Egyptian military and economic power, as well as cultural and religious life. Seti was born the son of a military officer in northern Egypt, far from the halls of power in Memphis and Thebes. However, when the last king of the 18th Dynasty, Horemheb, died without an heir, Seti’s father was named king. He ruled for only two years before dying of old age, leaving Seti in charge of an ailing superpower. Seti set about rebuilding Egypt after a century of dynastic struggles and religious unrest. He reasserted Egypt’s might with a series of campaigns across the Levant, Libya and Nubia. He despatched expeditions to mine for copper, gold, and quarry for stone in the deserts, laying the foundations for one of the most ambitious building projects of any Egyptian Pharaoh and his actions allowed his son, Ramesses the Great to rule in relative peace and stability for 69 years, building on the legacy of his father.


Anthologie der demotischen Literatur

Friedhelm Hoffmann and Joachim Friedrich Quack

Lit Verlag (ISBN: 9783643140296) – Cost: EUR€ 39.90

Publisher’s Summary (1):

“Never before has the development of Egyptian literature from the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty to Roman times been given such thorough treatment such as in this anthology. All the texts are newly translated, some of these for the first time in German, others perhaps for the first time. An introductory overview of literary history, maps, extensive commentaries and indices allow those interested a deeper engagement with each literary work. At the same time will research into Egypt move beyond literary historical research questions, thus being put on a new, reliable foundation. The volume has been edited and extensively expanded for the second edition.”

The Notebook of Dhutmose – P. Vienna ÄS 10321

Regina Hölzl, Michael Neumann, and Robert J. Demarée

Brill (ISBN: 9789004381582) – Cost: EUR€ 135

Publisher’s Summary:

“In The Notebook of Dhutmose Regina Hölzl, Michael Neumann and Robert Demarée document the surprising discovery and the contents of a papyrus scroll found in an ibis mummy jar in the Kunsthistorisch Museum in Vienna. The twenty-four columns of text constitute a unique notebook of the Scribe Dhutmose who is well-known as the author of administrative documents and a private correspondence. He was active as chief administrator of the institution responsible for the creation of royal tombs in Western Thebes at the end of the Ramesside Period, around 1100 BCE. The texts concern financial accounts relating to the acquisition of copper tools and weapons, but also private affairs like an inventory of his amulets and jewelry and a report about the robbery of his personal belongings.”


Searching for the Lost Tombs of Egypt

Thames & Hudson (ISBN: 9780500051993) – Cost: GB£ 19.99

Publisher’s Summary:

“In this gripping account, Chris Naunton describes the quest for these and other great ‘missing’ tombs and presents the key moments of discovery that have yielded astonishing finds and created the archetypal image of the archaeologist poised at the threshold of a tomb left untouched for millennia. He skilfully unravels the tangled threads surrounding the burials of the heretic pharaoh Akhenaten and his son Tutankhamun, and coolly assesses whether the boy-king’s celebrated tomb might still hold incredible secrets. The Valley of the Kings almost certainly guards hidden treasures. Could other such tombs lie undiscovered? Amazing finds of unsuspected tombs continue to occur throughout Egypt, making headlines worldwide, and renewing the hope that some of these mysteries might yet be solved.”

Pharaoh Seti I: Father of Egyptian Greatness

Pen & Sword Books (ISBN: 9781526739575) – Cost: GB£ 19.99

Publisher’s Summary:

“Pharaoh Seti I ruled Egypt for only 11 years (1290-1279 BC), but his reign marked a revival of Egyptian military and economic power, as well as cultural and religious life. Seti was born the son of a military officer in northern Egypt, far from the halls of power in Memphis and Thebes. However, when the last king of the 18th Dynasty, Horemheb, died without an heir, Seti’s father was named king. He ruled for only two years before dying of old age, leaving Seti in charge of an ailing superpower. Seti set about rebuilding Egypt after a century of dynastic struggles and religious unrest. He reasserted Egypt’s might with a series of campaigns across the Levant, Libya and Nubia. He despatched expeditions to mine for copper, gold, and quarry for stone in the deserts, laying the foundations for one of the most ambitious building projects of any Egyptian Pharaoh and his actions allowed his son, Ramesses the Great to rule in relative peace and stability for 69 years, building on the legacy of his father.”

Structures of Power: Law and Gender Across the Ancient Near East

Oriental Institute Chicago (ISBN: 9781614910398) – US$ 29.95

Publisher’s Summary:

“This volume publishes the proceedings of the eleventh annual University of Chicago Oriental Institute Seminar. Its central goal is to present a cross-cultural study of the intersection between law and gender relations in the ancient world, with a focus on the ancient Near East. When reflecting upon the formation, perpetuation, and interactions of social structures that frequently come into conflict with each other, one discovers that gender constructs are used by mechanisms of social monitoring and control structures of power. One such example is the realm of jurisdiction and legislation. This volume uses the sphere of legal institutions as a prism through which to consider gender relations in the ancient world, both in the Near East and beyond. The way in which similar issues were manifested in different cultural and historical contexts is examined, with the goal of identifying common denominators as well as particularities. The three themes discussed in this volume are examined through multiple historical-cultural examples.”

24 Hours in Ancient Egypt. A Day in the Life of the People Who Lived There

MIchael O’Mara Books (ISBN: 9781782439110) – Cost: GB£ 12.99

Publisher’s Summary:

“Ancient Egypt wasn’t all pyramids, sphinxes and gold sarcophagi. For your average Egyptian, life was tough, and work was hard, conducted under the burning gaze of the sun god Ra.During the course of a day in the ancient city of Thebes (modern-day Luxor), Egypt’s religious capital, we meet 24 Egyptians from all strata of society – from the king to the bread-maker, the priestess to the fisherman, the soldier to the midwife – and get to know what the real Egypt was like by spending an hour in their company. We encounter a different one of these characters every hour and in every chapter, and through their eyes see what an average day in ancient Egypt was really like.”

Handel in Krisenzeiten: Ägyptisch-mykenische Handelsbeziehungen in der Ramessidenzeit

Archaeopress (ISBN: 9781784918675) – Cost: GB£ 35

Publisher’s Summary:

“This book provides an overview of the sites of Mycenaean pottery finds in Egypt and Nubia. Data from thirty-six sites in Egypt and twelve sites in Nubia are presented. The context of the vessels and sherds dates from the reign of Akhenaten (18th Dynasty) to that of Ramesses VI (20th Dynasty). The imported vessels were found in the capital cities as well as in fortresses, other cities and tombs. Stirrup jars and flasks came to light frequently.”

Fun Things To Do With Dead Animals

Eden Unger Bowditch and Salima Ikram

American University in Cairo Press (ISBN: 9789774168499) – Cost: US$ 16.95

Publisher’s Summary:

“Life can be a challenge when your mother gives your friends dead mice in your birthday goody bags and offers to mummify your class pet bunny. Amun Ra (yes, like the Egyptian god) shares the story of his endlessly embarrassing and unconventional life with his Mummy, the famous Egyptologist Amilas Marquis. He regales his readers with adventures of crossing continents, of narrow escapes with stolen artifacts, of death defying run-ins with scorpions, not to mention the humiliation in the face of his peers, with his mother’s graphic stories of ancient rites and severed body parts. Along the way, he shares his knowledge about ancient Egypt and the modern Middle East, as well as Europe and North America. This book is appropriate for readers 10–14 but can be enjoyed by parents and children of more varied ages.”

A Kerma Ancien Cemetery in the Northern Dongola Reach

Archaeopress (ISBN: 9781784919313) – Cost: GB£ 58

Publisher’s Summary:

“This volume is the final report on the excavations of a Kerma Ancien cemetery discovered by the Sudan Archaeological Research Society during its Northern Dongola Reach Survey conducted between 1993 and 1997. It is one of the very few cemeteries of this date to have been fully excavated and provides interesting data on funerary culture as practised in a rural environment, to be compared with the extensive information available from investigations of the cemetery associated with the metropolis of Kerma 100km to the north. It includes a range of specialist reports on all categories of artefacts recovered as well as on the physical anthropology, archaeobotany and archaeozoology.”

What are you reading at the moment? Let us know in the comments!


Ancient Egypt Artifacts Depicting Ramses the Great as Victorious General Were Spreading Fake News

Ramses II, also known as Ramses the Great, was Pharaoh of Egypt from 1279-1300 and, according to ancient inscriptions, was a great warrior who led Egypt to many successful battles. However, a recent archaeological find suggests that stories of Ramses' battle victories may be little more than elaborate lies.

In a study published in Antiquity, scientists in England found 3,300-year-old sickle blades, handstones, querns and cow bones&mdashall forms of ancient farming tools and evidence of cattle rearing&mdashless than five miles away from an Egyptian fort deep in Libyan territory, Phys.org reported. The finding shows that Egyptians farmed far into Libyan territory without the need for military protection, suggesting that the two nations were not at war, but lived peacefully beside each other.

Related: Ancient Egyptian Pyramidion Found Next To Largest Obelisk Hints At Existence Of Queen's Lost Chamber

In addition, according to lead researcher Nicky Nielsen, an Egyptologist at the University of Manchester in the UK, this evidence shows that not only did Egyptians in Libya territory rely on their neighbors for trade, but also relied on the Libyans' knowledge of their environment to help improve their farming skills.

"The type of agriculture practiced in the region around the fort is sustained by very limited rainfall and required in-depth knowledge of hydrological conditions, water storage etc," Nielsen told Newsweek. "The Egyptians were used to a far more fertile agricultural system supported by the Nile Inundation. It is difficult to imagine that an Egyptian garrison would be able to set up a functional agricultural system in such an alien environment without local know-how."

The evidence points to peace between the two peoples, not constant fierce war and conquering, as the ancient inscriptions would suggest. In fact, the study even goes as far as to say that Ramses the Great purposely spread lies about himself in order to depict an image of reign that was not true.

Related: Secret Of Ancient Egyptian Writing Revealed In 2,000-Year-Old Papyrus Scrolls

"Ramses was trying to live up to the image of a perfect Egyptian Pharaoh" Nielsen said. "No Pharaoh would ever have admitted defeat publicly&mdashthis is why it is very difficult to study Egyptian historical documents as they tend to be very biased."

Nielsen explained that Ramses was a young member of a military dynasty, and most Egyptian pharaohs portrayed themselves as warriors. Furthermore, Ramses' father, Seti I, was a successful warrior and Ramses may have felt pressure to live up to his father's greatness.

Stories of Ramses' greatness are inscribed in Egyptian monuments, often carved so deeply that it was nearly impossible to remove the etchings, Nielsen explained, according to Phys.org. Ramses ruled Egypt for 69 years, Nielsen said, and sired over 160 children. This meant that his lies of greatness had plenty of time to take root, and his plentiful descendants may have helped to spread and uphold the lies.

"Members of the public (at least the soldiers present at Qadesh for instance) would probably have known [about Ramses' lies], and possibly the court would have as well," Nielsen told Newsweek . "But it was simply expected that Pharaoh portrayed himself as a great victor (regardless of whether this was true or not), so I doubt anyone would have seen anything strange in what Ramses did."

Ramses ruled thousands of years ago, and there is no denying that he was a great leader, although in ways different than those he chose to depict. What Ramses II may have lacked in military skill he made up in architecture accomplishments. The pharaoh was responsible for the erection of more monuments than any other Egyptian pharaoh, with the most notable being the Ramesseum and the temples of Abu Simbel, Ancient Egypt Online reported. Regardless, according to Nielsen, the new findings have broader implications than simply proving the ancient king had a tendency to inflate his reputation.

As he said: "They show that we need to be aware when studying ancient Egypt to not simply take the word of the Egyptian monumental sources, inscriptions and great reliefs."


Pharaoh Seti I - Father of Egyptian Greatness, Nicky Nielsen - History

History Books & Magazines запись закреплена

Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact - Robert D. Smith, Kelly DeVries
ABC-CLIO | 2007 | PDF

In the Middle Ages, the lack of standardized weapons meant that one warrior's arms were often quite different from another's, even when they were fighting on the same side. And with few major technological advances in that period, the evolution of those weapons over the centuries was incremental.
Показать полностью. But evolve they ultimately did, bringing arms, armor, and siege weapons to the threshold of the modern era. From the fall of the Roman Empire to the beginnings of the Renaissance, Medieval Weapons: An Illustrated History of Their Impact covers the inexorable transformation from warrior in the mail shirt to fully armored knight, from the days of spears and swords to the large-scale adoption of the handgun.

This fascinating reference covers the weapons and armor used by warriors from the 4th to the 15th century and discusses how and why they changed over time:

• Narrative chapters follow the development of medieval weapons and armor in four periods: early medieval (376–750), Carolingian (750–1050), the Crusades (1050–1300), and late medieval (1300–1550)
• The chronological reference section features vivid illustrations of representative swords, bows, cudgels, shields, and increasingly more sophisticated armor

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The End of Byzantium - Jonathan Harris
Yale University Press | 2012 | PDF

By 1400, the once-mighty Byzantine Empire stood on the verge of destruction. Most of its territories had been lost to the Ottoman Turks, and Constantinople was under close blockade. Against all odds, Byzantium lingered on for another fifty years until 1453, when the Ottomans dramatically toppled the capital’s walls. During this bleak and uncertain time, ordinary Byzantines faced difficult decisions to protect their livelihoods and families against the death throes of their homeland. In this evocative and moving book, Jonathan Harris explores individual stories of diplomatic maneuverings, covert defiance, and sheer luck against a backdrop of major historical currents and offers a new perspective on the real reasons behind the fall of this extraordinarily fascinating empire.

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Czech, German, and Noble: Status and National Identity in Habsburg Bohemia - Rita Krueger
Oxford University Press | 2009 | PDF

Czech, German, and Noble examines the intellectual ideas and political challenges that inspired patriotic activity among the Bohemian nobility, the infusion of national identity into public and institutional life, and the role of the nobility in crafting and supporting the national ideal within Habsburg Bohemia.
Показать полностью. Patriotic aristocrats created the visible and public institutional framework that cultivated national sentiment and provided the national movement with a degree of intellectual and social legitimacy. The book argues that the mutating identity of the aristocracy was tied both to insecurity and to a belief in the power of science to address social problems, commitment to the ideals of enlightenment as well as individual and social improvement, and profound confidence that progress was inevitable and that intellectual achievement would save society. The aristocrats who helped create, endow and nationalize institutions were a critical component of the public sphere and necessary for the nationalization of public life overall. The book explores the myriad reasons for aristocratic participation in new or nationalized institutions, the fundamental changes in legal and social status, new ideas about civic responsibility and political participation, and the hope of reform and fear of revolution. The book examines the sociability within and creation of nascent national institutions that incorporated fundamentally new ways of thinking about community, culture, competition, and status. The argument, that class mattered to the degree that it was irrelevant, intersects with several important historical questions beyond theories of nationalism, including debates about modernization and the longevity of aristocratic power, the nature of the public sphere and class, and the measurable impact of science and intellectual movements on social and political life.

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Pharaoh Seti I: Father of Egyptian Greatness - Nicky Nielsen
Pen and Sword History | 2018 | EPUB

Pharaoh Seti I ruled Egypt for only 11 years (1290-1279 BC), but his reign marked a revival of Egyptian military and economic power, as well as cultural and religious life. Seti was born the son of a military officer in northern Egypt, far from the halls of power in Memphis and Thebes. However, when the last king of the 18th Dynasty, Horemheb, died without an heir, Seti’s father was named king. He ruled for only two years before dying of old age, leaving Seti in charge of an ailing superpower. Seti set about rebuilding Egypt after a century of dynastic struggles and religious unrest. He reasserted Egypt’s might with a series of campaigns across the Levant, Libya and Nubia. He despatched expeditions to mine for copper, gold, and quarry for stone in the deserts, laying the foundations for one of the most ambitious building projects of any Egyptian Pharaoh and his actions allowed his son, Ramesses the Great to rule in relative peace and stability for 69 years, building on the legacy of his father.

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Alabama in Africa: Booker T. Washington, the German Empire, and the Globalization of the New South - Andrew Zimmerman
Princeton University Press | 2012 | PDF

In 1901, the Tuskegee Institute, founded by Booker T. Washington, sent an expedition to the German colony of Togo in West Africa, with the purpose of transforming the region into a cotton economy similar to that of the post-Reconstruction American South.
Показать полностью. Alabama in Africa explores the politics of labor, sexuality, and race behind this endeavor, and the economic, political, and intellectual links connecting Germany, Africa, and the southern United States. The cross-fertilization of histories and practices led to the emergence of a global South, reproduced social inequities on both sides of the Atlantic, and pushed the American South and the German Empire to the forefront of modern colonialism.

Zimmerman shows how the people of Togo, rather than serving as a blank slate for American and German ideologies, helped shape their region's place in the global South. He looks at the forms of resistance pioneered by African American freedpeople, Polish migrant laborers, African cotton cultivators, and other groups exploited by, but never passive victims of, the growing colonial political economy. Zimmerman reconstructs the social science of the global South formulated by such thinkers as Max Weber and W.E.B. Du Bois, and reveals how their theories continue to define contemporary race, class, and culture.

Tracking the intertwined histories of Europe, Africa, and the Americas at the turn of the century, Alabama in Africa shows how the politics and economics of the segregated American South significantly reshaped other areas of the world.

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1) This Day in Presidential History - Paul Brandus
Bernan Press | 2017 | EPUB

For reference librarians, journalists, social media managers, history buffs, and more, a treasure trove of information about the U.S. presidency for each day of the year from the popular, award-winning White House journalist Paul Brandus. The Atlantic calls Brandus "one of the top Washington insiders you should follow on Twitter" (@WestWingReport).
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For each of the 366 days of the year, Brandus offers little-known, fascinating facts historical anecdotes and pithy quotations from and about the 45 presidents of the United States—from George Washington to Donald Trump. This Day in Presidential History will surprise its readers with the inside information that Brandus has uncovered in his years on the White House beat.

Here are stories that span war and peace, sex and scandal, frivolity and tragedy—and everything in between, including:
• the night Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth met at Ford's Theatre—17 months before Booth's crime,
• the advice Richard Nixon gave Donald Trump,
• the president who immediately went to bed after his swearing in,
• the only president to be censured by the U.S. Senate,
• the president who gambled away the White House china,
• the joyriding teens who crashed into the president's car—and lived to tell the tale,
• the secret swearing in,
• and much more.

2) Under This Roof: The White House and the Presidency — 21 Presidents, 21 Rooms, 21 Inside Stories - Paul Brandus
Lyons Press | 2015 | EPUB

“Like taking a tour of the White House with a gifted storyteller at your side!”

1. Why, in the minutes before John F. Kennedy was murdered, was a blood-red carpet installed in the Oval Office?
2. If Abraham Lincoln never slept in the Lincoln Bedroom, where did he sleep?
3. Why was one president nearly killed in the White House on inauguration day—and another secretly sworn in?
4. What really happened in the Situation Room on September 11, 2001?

History leaps off the page in this “riveting,” “fast-moving” and “highly entertaining” book on the presidency and White House in Under This Roof, from award-winning White House-based journalist Paul Brandus. Reporting from the West Wing briefing room since 2008, Brandus—the most followed White House journalist on Twitter (@WestWingReport)—weaves together stories of the presidents, their families, the events of their time—and an oft-ignored major character, the White House itself.

From George Washington—who selected the winning design for the White House—to the current occupant, Barack Obama—the story of the White House is the story of America itself, Brandus writes. You’ll:

1. Walk with John Adams through the still-unfinished mansion, and watch Thomas Jefferson plot to buy the Louisiana Territory
2. Feel the fear and panic as British invaders approach the mansion in 1814—and Dolley Madison frantically saves a painting of Washington
3. Gaze out the window with Abraham Lincoln as Confederate flags flutter in the breeze on the other side of the Potomac
4. Be in the room as one president is secretly sworn in, and another gambles away the White House china in a card game
5. Stand by the presidential bed as one First Lady—covering up her husband’s illness from the nation—secretly makes decisions on his behalf
6. Learn how telephones, movies, radio, TV changed the presidency—and the nation itself

Through triumph and tragedy, boom and bust, secrets and scandals, Brandus takes you to the presidential bedroom, movie theater, Situation Room, Oval Office and more. Under This Roof is a “sensuous account of the history of both the home of the President, and the men and women who designed, inhabited, and decorated it. Paul Brandus captivates with surprising, gloriously raw observations.”

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A Companion to Medieval Genoa - Carrie E. Benes
Brill | 2018 | PDF

A Companion to Medieval Genoa introduces non-specialists to recent scholarship on the vibrant and source-rich medieval history of Genoa. Focusing mostly on the eleventh to fifteenth centuries, the volume positions the city of Genoa and the Genoese within the broader history of the Italian peninsula and the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages.
Показать полностью. Thematic contributions highlight the interdependence of local, regional, and international concerns, and serve as a helpful corrective to the traditional overemphasis of Florence and Venice in the English-language historiography of medieval Italy. The volume thus offers a fresh perspective on the history of medieval Italy — as well as a handy introduction to the riches of the Genoese archives — to undergraduates, graduate students, and scholars in related fields.

Contributors are Ross Balzaretti, Carrie E. Benes, Denise Bezzina, Roberta Braccia, Luca Filangieri, George L. Gorse, Paola Guglielmotti, Thomas Kirk, Sandra Macchiavello, Merav Mack, Jeffrey Miner, Rebecca Müller, Antonio Musarra, Sandra Origone, Giovanna Petti Balbi, Valeria Polonio, Gervase Rosser, Antonella Rovere, Stefan Stantchev, and Carlo Taviani.

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1) Louisiana: A History - Bennett H Wall, John C. Rodrigue, Light Townsend Cummins, Judith Kelleher Schafer, Edward F. Haas, Michael L. Kurtz
Wiley-Blackwell | 2014 | PDF

Covering the lively, even raucous, history of Louisiana from before First Contact through the Elections of 2012, this sixth edition of the classic Louisiana history survey provides an engaging and comprehensive narrative of what is arguably America’s most colorful state.
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• Since the appearance of the first edition of this classic text in 1984, Louisiana: A History has remained the best-loved and most highly regarded college-level survey of Louisiana on the market
• Compiled by some of the foremost experts in the field of Louisiana history who combine their own research with recent historical discoveries
• Includes complete coverage of the most recent events in political and environmental history, including the continued aftermath of Katrina and the 2010 BP oil spill
• Considers the interrelationship between Louisiana history and that of the American South and the nation as a whole
• Written in an engaging and accessible style complemented by more than a hundred photographs and maps

2) French Colonial Louisiana and The Atlantic World - Bradley G. Bond
Louisiana State University Press | 2005 | PDF

French colonial Louisiana has failed to occupy a place in the historic consciousness of the United States, perhaps owing to its short duration (1699–1762) and its standing outside the dominant narrative of the British colonies in North America. This anthology seeks to locate early Louisiana in its proper place, bringing together a broad range of scholarship that depicts a complex and vibrant sphere.

Colonial Louisiana comprised the vast center of what would become the United States. It lay between Spanish, British, and French colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and between woodland and eastern plains Indians. As such, it provided a meeting place for Europeans, African, and native Americans, functioning as a crossroads between the New World and other worlds. While acknowledging colonial Louisiana’s peripheral position in U.S. and Atlantic World history, this volume demonstrates that the colony stands at the thematic center of the shared narratives and historiographies of diverse places. Through its twelve essays, French Colonial Louisiana and the Atlantic World tells a whole story, the story of a place that belongs to the historic narrative of the Atlantic World.

3) The Nation's Crucible: The Louisiana Purchase and the Creation of America - Peter J. Kastor
Yale University Press | 2004 | PDF

In 1803 the United States purchased Louisiana from France. This seemingly simple acquisition brought with it an enormous new territory as well as the country's first large population of nonnaturalized Americans--Native Americans, African Americans, and Francophone residents. What would become of those people dominated national affairs in the years that followed. This book chronicles that contentious period from 1803 to 1821, years during which people proposed numerous visions of the future for Louisiana and the United States. The Louisiana Purchase proved to be the crucible of American nationhood, Peter Kastor argues. The incorporation of Louisiana was among the most important tasks for a generation of federal policymakers. It also transformed the way people defined what it meant to be an American.

4) The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana’s Cane World, 1820–1860 - Richard J. Follett
Louisiana State University Press | 2005 | PDF

Focusing on the master-slave relationship in Louisiana's antebellum sugarcane country, The Sugar Masters explores how a modern, capitalist mind-set among planters meshed with old-style paternalistic attitudes to create one of the South's most insidiously oppressive labor systems. Richard Follett explains that in exchange for increased productivity and efficiency sugar planters offered their slaves a range of incentives, such as greater autonomy, improved accommodations, and even financial remuneration. These material gains, however, were only short term. According to Follett, many of Louisiana's sugar elite presented their incentives with a "facade of paternal reciprocity" that seemingly bound the slaves' interests to the apparent goodwill of the masters. Slaves responded to this display of paternalism by trying to enhance their rights under bondage, but the constant bargaining process invariably led to compromises on their part, and the grueling production pace never relented. Until recently, scholars have viewed planters as either paternalistic lords who eschewed marketplace values or as entrepreneurs driven to business success. Follett offers a new view of the sugar masters as embracing both the capitalist market and a social ideology based on hierarchy, honor, and paternalism. His stunning synthesis of empirical research, demographics study, and social and cultural history sets a new standard for this subject.

5) Louisianians in the Civil War - Lawrence Lee Hewitt, Arthur W. Bergeron Jr.
University of Missouri | 2002 | PDF

Louisianians in the Civil War brings to the forefront the suffering endured by Louisianians during and after the war—hardships more severe than those suffered by the majority of residents in the Confederacy. The wealthiest southern state before the Civil War, Louisiana was the poorest by 1880. Such economic devastation negatively affected most segments of the state’s population, and the fighting that contributed to this financial collapse further fragmented Louisiana’s culturally diverse citizenry. The essays in this book deal with the differing segments of Louisiana’s society and their interactions with one another.

Louisiana was as much a multicultural society during the Civil War as the United States is today. One manner in which this diversity manifested itself was in the turning of neighbor against neighbor. This volume lays the groundwork for demonstrating that strongholds of Unionist sentiment existed beyond the mountainous regions of the Confederacy and, to a lesser extent, that foreigners and African Americans could surpass white, native-born Southerners in their support of the Lost Cause. Some of the essays deal with the attitudes and hardships the war inflicted on different classes of civilians (sugar planters, slaves, Union sympathizers, and urban residents, especially women), while others deal with specific minority groups or with individuals.

Written by leading scholars of Civil War history, Louisianians in the Civil War provides the reader a rich understanding of the complex ordeals of Louisiana and her people. Students, scholars, and the general reader will welcome this fine addition to Civil War studies.

6) The Louisiana Scalawags: Politics, Race, and Terrorism During the Civil War and Reconstruction - Frank J. Wetta
Louisiana State University Press | 2013 | PDF

During the Civil War and Reconstruction, the pejorative term ''scalawag'' referred to white southerners loyal to the Republican Party. With the onset of the federal occupation of New Orleans in 1862, scalawags challenged the restoration of the antebellum political and social orders. Derided as spoilsmen, uneducated ''poor white trash,'' Union sympathizers, and race traitors, scalawags remain largely misunderstood even today. In The Louisiana Scalawags, Frank J. Wetta offers the first in-depth analysis of these men and their struggle over the future of Louisiana. A fascinating look into the interplay of politics, race, and terrorism during Reconstruction, this volume answers an array of questions about the origin and demise of the scalawags, and debunks much of the negative mythology surrounding them.

Contrary to popular thought, the white Republicans counted among their ranks men of genuine accomplishment and talent. They worked in fields as varied as law, business, medicine, journalism, and planting, and many held government positions as city officials, judges, parish officeholders, and state legislators in the antebellum years. Wetta demonstrates that a strong sense of nationalism often motivated the men, no matter their origins.

Louisiana's scalawags were most active and influential during the early stages of Reconstruction, when they led in founding the state's Republican Party. The vast majority of white Louisianans, however, rejected the scalawags' appeal to form an alliance with the freedmen in a biracial political party. Eventually, the influence of the scalawags succumbed to persistent white terrorism, corruption, and competition from the carpetbaggers and their black Republican allies. By then, the state's Republican Party consisted of white political leaders without any significant white constituency. According to Wetta, these weaknesses, as well as ineffective federal intervention in response to a Democratic Party insurgency, caused the Republican Party to collapse and Reconstruction to fail in Louisiana.

7) Creole City: A Chronicle of Early American New Orleans - Nathalie Dessens
University Press of Florida | 2015 | PDF

In Creole City, Nathalie Dessens opens a window onto antebellum New Orleans during a period of rapid expansion and dizzying change. Exploring previously neglected aspects of the city’s early nineteenth-century history, Dessens examines how the vibrant, cosmopolitan city of New Orleans came to symbolize progress, adventure, and culture to so many.

Rooting her exploration in the Sainte-Gême Family Papers harbored at The Historic New Orleans Collection, Dessens follows the twenty-year correspondence of Jean Boze to Henri de Ste-Gême, both refugees from Saint-Domingue. Through Boze’s letters, written between 1818 and 1839, readers witness the convergence and merging of cultural attitudes as new arrivals and old colonial populations collide, sparking transformations in the economic, social, and political structures of the city. This Creolization of the city is thus revealed to be at the very heart of New Orleans’s early identity and made this key hub of Atlantic trade so very distinct from other nineteenth-century American metropolises.

8) The Accidental City: Improvising New Orleans - Lawrence N. Powell
Harvard University Press | 2012 | PDF

This is the story of a city that shouldn't exist. In the seventeenth century, what is now America's most beguiling metropolis was nothing more than a swamp: prone to flooding, infested with snakes, battered by hurricanes. But through the intense imperial rivalries of Spain, France, and England, and the ambitious, entrepreneurial merchants and settlers from four continents who risked their lives to succeed in colonial America, this unpromising site became a crossroads for the whole Atlantic world.

Lawrence N. Powell, a decades-long resident and observer of New Orleans, gives us the full sweep of the city's history from its founding through Louisiana statehood in 1812. We see the Crescent City evolve from a French village, to an African market town, to a Spanish fortress, and finally to an Anglo-American center of trade and commerce. We hear and feel the mix of peoples, religions, and languages from four continents that make the place electric-and always on the verge of unraveling. The Accidental City is the story of land-jobbing schemes, stock market crashes, and nonstop squabbles over status, power, and position, with enough rogues, smugglers, and self-fashioners to fill a picaresque novel.

Powell's tale underscores the fluidity and contingency of the past, revealing a place where people made their own history. This is a city, and a history, marked by challenges and perpetual shifts in shape and direction, like the sinuous river on which it is perched.

9) Leander Perez: Boss of the Delta - Glen Jeansonne
University Press of Mississippi | 2006 | PDF

A biography of the tumultuous career of one of Louisiana's staunchest segregationist politicians

Leander Perez (1891-1969) was more than simply another Neanderthal segregationist. He was a political boss who held absolute power in Plaquemines Parish to an extent unsurpassed by any parish leader in Louisiana's history. Leander Perez: Boss of the Delta is his full history.

A bit of a social reformer, a political figure of national stature, an oil tycoon worth millions of dollars, Perez was known to one and all, including himself, as the Judge, although the office he held for most of his career was that of district attorney. He got his political start in the early 1920s, when Huey Long was beginning to attract statewide attention. But, even after Long was gunned down in 1935, the Judge continued to dominate life in the lower delta for thirty-four years, until he died from a heart attack in 1969. Above all, Perez relished power, and the essence of his might lay in his skill as a backroom broker and in his personal friendships with such idologues as J. Strom Thurmond, Ross Barnett, Lester Maddox, Orval Faubus, and George Wallace. his grip on the parish was partly economic and partly political, and it was enforced by an iron will stronger than the will of any other man in the lower delta.

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