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The Sixth Crusade
Commanded by Frederick II. He received no support from the Christian kings, for Frederick II had been excommunicated. Upon arriving in Palestine, Frederick was welcomed by the Muslims, who, admired for their knowledge of Arab culture, signed a friendly treaty guaranteeing Christian sovereignty over the territories of Accra, Jaffa, Sidon, Nazareth, Bethlehem and all Jerusalem.
The Crusades of St. Louis
In 1244 Jerusalem was under the control of the Turks. The seventh crusade was initially aimed at Egypt where they conquered the city of Damieta, but were soon defeated in the city of Mansura and Louis IX (St. Louis) was taken prisoner. He was released only after the payment of a large ransom.
The Eighth Crusade (1270)
It aimed to attack the Turks in Tunis. But when Louis IX arrived, he died of the plague.
At the end of the crusading campaigns, it can be concluded that, in general, they were a failure, since the Holy Land was constantly invaded by the Muslims.
In fact, the crusades served as an essential instrument for the fall of the feudal system, as they paved the way for navigation in the Mediterranean by facilitating the modernization of commercial practices with consequent strengthening of the bourgeois class.
The legacy of the crusades
The crusades influenced European cavalry and, for centuries, its literature.
While on the one hand they deepened the hostility between Christianity and Islam, on the other they stimulated economic and cultural contacts for the permanent benefit of European civilization. Trade between Europe and Asia Minor has increased considerably and Europe has seen new products, in particular sugar and cotton. Cultural contacts between Europe and the East had a stimulating effect on Western knowledge and, to some extent, paved the way for the Renaissance.