Three days ago a new series was premiered on Science Channel. Its name is ‘Aliens: The Definitive Guide’. This new series with the help of prominent scientists (like Michio Kaku) will investigate non-Earth life forms and the latest research on life beyond Earth.
This promising new series looks like a serious effort to investigate and give answers to questions like whether Aliens exist and what they would look like? It will investigate remote places on earth as well as elsewhere in the universe where such questions can be answered.
Dr. Kaku states on the show, “Each galaxy consists of a hundred billion stars. Do the math. A hundred billion times a hundred billion is 10 sextillion. That’s one with 22 zeros after it. There definitely are aliens in outer space — they’re out there!”
You can read more here.
In the Milky Way alone, there are 60 billion planets that could be home to alien life -- and that life could take any fantastic form, ranging from massive icebound microbial networks, to bioluminescent underwater predators, to highly advanced robot races.
At least those are some of the imaginings in "Aliens: The Definitive Guide," a two-hour special airing Sunday at 8 p.m. ET on Discovery Canada as part of Aliens Week.
The project's goal is to establish a benchmark on what extraterrestrial life could look like, where it is most likely to exist and whether it will find us before we find it.
And, of course, there’s the questions of whether alien life even exists in the first place.
"Some scientists say that perhaps we are the only life forms in the universe," says Dr. Michio Kaku, a theoretical physicist at the City University of New York, and one of the experts cited in "Aliens."
"Give me a break. I mean how many stars are there out there in the universe anyway? The Hubble space telescope can see about 100 billion galaxies, that’s the visible universe. Each galaxy consists of 100 billion stars. There definitely are aliens in outer space, they're out there."
Directed by Britain's Mike Davis, "Aliens" was a co-production between Montreal's Handel Productions and the U.K.'s Arrow Media -- with special effects by Montreal's Mokko Studio.
Davis, who comes from a visual effects background working on computer graphics-heavy projects, said it seemed like the right time to embark on such a project.
He said new technology such as the Kepler space telescope is allowing astronomers to discover more new planets than ever before. And some of them lie in the so-called "goldilocks" zone, where life could theoretically exist since the conditions are “just right.”
As a result, Davis said, the possibility of alien “first contact” appears more likely than ever.
"It felt like now was a really good time for our audience to find out about lots of exciting areas of science -- very, very credible science where there are possible breakthroughs taking place when it comes to the discovery of life off the Earth," Davis said in an interview from London.
"We're chalking up lots of planets: we know how big they are, how dense they are, we can make certain assessments about what the chemistry of their atmospheres are like. We're nominating Earth-like planets all the time that seem to have conditions that might be suitable for life."
The project features some of the world's leading experts in their fields, from theoretical physicists to planetary scientists and astrobiologists -- all of whom share their visions of the many possible forms alien life could take.
Cutting-edge science is the "anchor," Davis said, which allowed the team to delve into the science fiction side, using CG graphics to explore what alien worlds and extra-terrestrials themselves would look like, and how humans would interact with them.
"There's a backbone of real science but each of those real science areas is a springboard to lovely science fiction, like the visuals and brilliant ideas we're familiar with in movies and TV shows and so on. But it’s always anchored in the real world scientific discoveries we're making now."
Dr. Lewis Dartnell, an astrobiologist at University College London, outlines in the film a number of fantastic evolutionary directions that life could take on other planets.
- Water world: On a planet covered in massive oceans hundreds of kilometres deep, aquatic life forms would have to evolve to survive in the dark depths far from the sun's light. From observing species that exist in the deepest parts of Earth's oceans, we can form an idea of how they would look and live -- likely hunting in packs, using bioluminescence to co-ordinate attacks and avoiding the monsters of the deep that would, in turn, prey on them.
- Ice world: On a planet made of ice, far from the star it orbits, it's possible that life could exist -- just not in the alien form typically portrayed in films or books. In that case, life trapped deep in the ice would likely take the form of bacteria that has developed a new way of absorbing energy by creating "long fibres of bacteria, all joined together to create vast networks of biological circuitry to extract energy from a magnetic field."
- Heavy gravity world: On a planet several times the size of Earth, it's possible that flying creatures would have evolved to take advantage of the heavier gravity. Able to generate much more flying force in the thicker, denser atmosphere, it’s possible they would be much larger and more powerful and aggressive than Earth's birds.
- Earth-like environment: In a world with a similar environment to Earth, it would be a mistake to assume life would have evolved into similar forms. Dartnell envisions massive octopi with exoskeletons developed to walk on land after they emerged from an aqueous environment into the heavy gravity of the surface. The "biggest, baddest extra-terrestrials" could live on an Earth-like planet where evolution has taken a very different turn, he said.
Other experts in the film envision species that have evolved far beyond humans – and are able to control their own evolutionary process and create computers and robots to do their work for them. Still other scientists are attempting to create life forms on Earth using elements known to be present on other planets.
The film also features groups of experts who are searching the cosmos for incoming messages sent from other extra-terrestrials, similar to the film “Contact.”
But Davis said he was astounded to learn there are also entire groups of people sending sophisticated messages out into space in hopes that somewhere out there, aliens are scanning their own skies for incoming signals.
Others, he said, are working to develop telescopes that could actually see far enough into space to detect evidence of life on far-off planets, or searching for Dyson spheres -- hypothetical structures built around stars to harness their energy and support alien civilizations.
Davis said these advances excite him, but also leads to a frustrating reality.
"It seems like we very soon will identify a planet that is very Earth-like. It's possible we will be able to analyze the chemistry of that atmosphere from the light it is throwing back at us, and it might be we have telescopes powerful enough even to be able to see lights on that planet or evidence of industrial activity. But we're just not going to be able to develop technology that allows us to get there," Davis said.
That realization was one of the "slightly downer" moments of the project, he said.
Unless Star Trek-like warp drives can be developed (yes, scientists are working on them), which allow travel up to and beyond the speed of light, those worlds will remain unreachable for at least a century.
"At the current rate, it's going to take us 73,000 years to reach the nearest planet that might be habitable that surrounds a star -- we would need to reduce that significantly," he said.
Of course, he said, none of that will really matter if the aliens reach us first.
This image, taken from 'Aliens: The Definitive Guide,' shows an artist's concept of a massive web of bacteria that could, in theory, harness energy from a planet's magnetic field.
This image, taken from 'Aliens: The Definitive Guide,' shows an artist's concept of what birds or other flying creatures could look like in an alien world.
This image, taken from 'Aliens: The Definitive Guide,' shows an artist's concept of how an alien octopus could have evolved in order to walk on dry land.
This image, taken from 'Aliens: The Definitive Guide,' shows a Dyson sphere -- a hypothetical structure built around a star to harness its energy.
Objectives of Alien Infiltration
1. "Alien Infiltration" Phone Booth
A night go to the phone booth described in the note - Alien Infiltration. The phone will be ringing and you will be able to interact with it.
Fiends from outer space are abducting our citizens and replacing them with alien clones. Chase their ship and thwart their plans! Should you succeed, I have a fitting trophy for you.
After a while a flying saucer will arrive.
2. Shoot the Aliens!
The UFO will stop nearby and start to lift up a person. Shoot it with a gun. One shot is enough to stop the process if you are close enough. It is best to get in the car beforehand and shoot while you are in the car, then you will immediately be able to chase the UFO as soon as it starts to fly away.
3. Follow the Aliens! / Shoot the Aliens!
You must now quickly get up to the next place where a UFO will try to kidnap another person. This will take place on the Central Island. One of the obstacles on your way to the spot will be that you will have to jump over a partially raised drawbridge. But you have already done it once before -)
This section of the route is not as demanding in terms of time as the next one, so try to approach the place from the north then you will be well positioned for the next part of the route.
As before, one accurate shot will cause the UFO to fly away.
4. Follow the Aliens! / Shoot the Aliens!
The next place where a UFO will try to kidnap a person is Downtown. You have really limited time to get there.
Again without getting out of the car shoot the UFO.
5. Follow the Aliens! / Shoot the Aliens!
The last place where a UFO will try to kidnap someone is in Beech Hill.
When you get there, do the same as before. Shoot the flying saucer.
6. Follow the Aliens!
You must now get to the lighthouse in the south.
When you are close to the lighthouse, a timer will appear showing how much time you have to complete this mission.
7. Fight your way to shield generator
You have to get to the back of the lighthouse because that is where the generator is located. First, eliminate the bandits wearing alien masks who stand by the roadblock.
Then go towards the lighthouse building and kill the other bandits you encounter there.
When you do this you can use the first aid kit that is located there.
Then go from the right or left side of the building to its back. Kill further bandits and after a while you should see the generator.
8. Destroy the generator
Shoot the barrels with explosives standing next to the generator.
9. Finish the alien ship
Shoot the flying saucer. One shot from any weapon is enough for the ship to fly away and then crash after a while.
The mission will end and you will unlock the Alien costume.
After completing Alien Infiltration you will get or will be able to get Curse of the Baskervilles (1 of 10).
Africa is home to the first humans and this gives a new meaning to its nickname the motherland. The continent has the longest history. Africans have been around for a very very long time. A huge part of Africa’s earliest history has been lost, which is typical for early humans due to the relatively short time for which writing has existed. Some parts of African history have been distorted and misrepresented. However, there are parts of African history that remain intact, as modern-day discoveries and new emerging facts and methods help to rediscover the lost pasts of the Africa’s past through DNA sequencing, dendrochronology, Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) dating and various other methods.
Read more about this here:
Africans are the most diverse people in the world. Perhaps this has a connection with the fact that they are the earliest humans (founder effect), and it has been proven that humans adapt to the different environments they find themselves in overtime as they migrate. This accounts for the many different skin tones of Africans ranging from very dark to very light, and the thousands of different cultures and languages spread all across the continent.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, Africans had already travelled to other parts of the world in various “human migration” waves, as archiac humans spreading Achuelean technology, as behaviorally modern humans (BMH) spreading the stone age and tool use, and around 1,000 BCE to 1500 AD not as slaves as many wrongly believe but as respected members of society. Discoveries such as Memnon in the Trojan war, the Ivory Bangle Lady, the beachy head lady, and many other findings prove this fact while giving us an insight into the way of life of much earlier societies.
Ancient Africans were pioneers of early civilisation, many people do not know this, but the facts are there for all to see. Africa is credited with having the oldest history in the world. The origins of several human advancements were from Africa. There is evidence that early African societies excelled in fields such as engineering, mathematics, writing even navigation.
Some notable great African civilisations such as The Great Benin Empire, Ancient Egypt, Empire of Mali, Empire of Songhai, The Nri Kingdom, The Garamantes, Kanem-Bornu Empire, Kingdom of Luba, Kingdom of Makuria, The Land of Punt and so many other great African civilisations had a highly organised society that was developed, excelled in commerce and flourished. You can learn more about them here https://thinkafrica.net/african-civilisations/.
Precolonial African civilisations had highly evolved political and leadership systems that supported their various complex and developed societies. Such as the Ibinda system of the Kalenji people of Kenya, the confederacy system of the Kwararafa people, the bureaucratic federal republic system of the Ashanti Empire, the hegemony system of the Songhai Empire, the Gada system of the Oromo, the hereditary theocracy of the Fatimid Caliphate, Monarchical system of the Mossi kingdoms, the theocratic system of the Nri kingdom, and many more developed system of leaderships that you can read about here https://thinkafrica.net/africas-15-pre-colonial-political-systems/. The monarchical system, however, seems to be the more prominent leadership style for most African societies.
These ancient African civilisations invented and originated their ways of doing things, many of which parallel independent developments around the world. Sadly, Africa is denied credit for most of her contributions. There is clear evidence of sophisticated African cultures from as far back as many thousands of years ago. For instance, there are about 15 ancient African writing styles that predate even Latin, read about them here https://thinkafrica.net/african-writing/. As far back as 82,000 years ago, Africans had already invented abstract arts and painting. Algorithms which have become an inevitable part of computing today had its roots in Africa. Africans domesticated over 2000 different types of food, some of which today is consumed globally. Africans built the earliest seafaring vessels and you are able to learn on this site about so many other achievements. There were powerful kingdoms and many centres of learning in Africa, such as the University of Sankore.
The only part of African history known to most people has to do with the arrival of the Europeans in Africa. To many, it is almost as if Africa had no history up until that time.
The European age of discovery in the 15th century heralded their exploration of Africa.
This marked a turning point in African history. The transatlantic slave trade is notoriously the highlight of this encounter.
Before the slave trade became full-blown, Europeans traded goods with Africans, commodities like textiles, gold, farm produce, ivory, salt, palm oil, were exchanged.
The Portuguese were the first to officially ship African slaves overseas when they exported about 235 Africans from present-day Senegal around 1444. The Portuguese were also the first to venture deep into Sub-saharan Africa and later joined by Britain, France, and of lesser influence other European countries like Spain, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium and Italy.
Previously, trade with sub-Saharan Africa with Europe was only possible through the north Africans who served as middlemen.
The direct trade and interaction with the Europeans had a massive effect across all African sphere of life. There are records of wealthy African merchants sending their children to European universities, as covered in the “Black Tudors: the Untold Story” by Miranda Kaufmann.
The abundance of the rich natural resources of Africa soon led to avarice on the part of the Europeans, and this resulted in a mad scramble for Africa’s resources, including her people. The late 15th century all through to the 19th century saw the exploitation of Africa by European powers. During this period, between 11 and 15 million Africans were shipped overseas and sold into slavery.
Africans and their way of life suffered significant damage. The Europeans imposed their lifestyle and religious beliefs on the African people, traditional African institutions were dismantled or severely weakened, and European proxies set up in its place.
Between 1500 and 1900 an estimated 5.6 million people, mostly Africans, died in wars relating purely to conflicts between European states and African states. For instance, 480,000 on both sides died in the Franco-Algeria wars while 36,000 died in the Italo-Ethiopian Wars. The violent attempts to either feed the lucrative triangular Trans-Atlantic and Trans-Sahara slave trades with captives or to seize Africa’s trade markets for Europe led to instability for refugees and displaced persons.
Unexpectedly, in some minor cases slaves taken to the Americas became explorers in the New World and through their exploits gained them rewards as they played off Spain, against France and against Britain such as Esteban, Juan Valiente, and Juan Garrido. This is covered in “Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions” by Jane Landers.
The Berlin conference of 1884/85 strongly reaffirmed European colonisation of Africa and gave it some form of legal backing.
This encouraged the European powers to strengthen their already established ties and effectively kill off any remaining existing form of African autonomy and self-governance.
The Scramble for Africa benefitted from colonisation efforts in Asia. By the time Africa was colonized, the East India Company already had a strong grip over India and Pakistan.
Indian troops (non-European) were used by Britain as the cannon fodder in India (90%), Burma (1824-1885), Persia (1856-57), China (1839-42 etc.), Afghanistan (1878 – 80), Egypt (1882 – 85), Central Africa (1897 – 1804), West Africa (1840 – 1904), Sudan and South Africa (1860 – 1890).
Size and composition of the Indian colonial armies in British India and the Dutch East Indies from the mid-eighteenth century to 1913, in thousands
Even if You Think Discussing Aliens Is Ridiculous, Just Hear Me Out
The most curious subplot in the news right now is the admission, at the most senior levels of the United States government, that the military services have collected visuals, data and testimonials recording flying objects they cannot explain that they are investigating these phenomena seriously and that they will, in the coming months, report at least some of their findings to the public. It feels, at times, like the beginning of a film where everyone is going about their lives, even as the earthshaking events unfurl on a silenced television in the background.
A number of stories in The New York Times over the past few years have confirmed the existence of a military program on “Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification” and revealed videos in which trained pilots marvel over unidentified craft apparently defying the limits of known technology.
On April 30, The New Yorker published a revelatory article by Gideon Lewis-Kraus tracking the rise of congressional, military and media interest in U.F.O.s. Harry Reid, the former Senate majority leader from Nevada, emerges as the key actor. In the middle of his decades-long career in government, he pushed to fund these investigations, and since retiring he’s been relentless in voicing his conviction that the military has information on U.F.O.s that the public deserves to know. He told Lewis-Kraus that he believed there was crash debris held by Lockheed Martin, but when he asked the Pentagon to see it, he was refused access. “I tried to get, as I recall, a classified approval by the Pentagon to have me go look at the stuff,” he said. “They would not approve that.”
Language inserted into the 2021 Intelligence Authorization Act gave the government 180 days to gather and analyze the data it has collected, and to release a report on the findings. On Fox News, John Ratcliffe, the former director of national intelligence, was given the opportunity to play down the report, which began under his tenure, and he declined. “When we talk about sightings,” he said, “we are talking about objects that have been seen by Navy or Air Force pilots, or have been picked up by satellite imagery, that frankly engage in actions that are difficult to explain, movements that are hard to replicate, that we don’t have the technology for, or traveling at speeds that exceed the sound barrier without a sonic boom.” Nor are these just eyewitness accounts, made by fallible human observers. “Usually, we have multiple sensors that are picking up these things,” he said.
Perhaps Ratcliffe, a former member of Congress whose sole stint in intelligence came at the tail end of the Trump administration, is simply hyping his work. But that doesn’t explain why a former C.I.A. director, John Brennan, said in an interview with the economist Tyler Cowen that “some of the phenomena we’re going to be seeing continues to be unexplained and might, in fact, be some type of phenomenon that is the result of something that we don’t yet understand and that could involve some type of activity that some might say constitutes a different form of life.” Well then.
To state the obvious: All this is a little weird. None of it is proof of extraterrestrial visitation, of course. And I am not just offering a pro forma disclaimer to cover my firm belief in aliens. I really don’t know what’s behind these videos and reports, and I relish that. In this case, that is my bias: I enjoy the spaciousness of mystery. Evidence that there is intelligent extraterrestrial life, and it has been here, would upend how humanity understands itself and our place in the cosmos. Even if you think all discussion of aliens is ridiculous, it’s fun to let the mind roam over the implications.
The way I’ve framed the thought experiment in recent conversations is this: Imagine, tomorrow, an alien craft crashed down in Oregon. There are no life-forms in it. It’s effectively a drone. But it’s undeniably extraterrestrial in origin. So we are faced with the knowledge that we’re not alone, that we are perhaps being watched, and we have no way to make contact. How does that change human culture and society?
One immediate effect, I suspect, would be a collapse in public trust. Decades of U.F.O. reports and conspiracies would take on a different cast. Governments would be seen as having withheld a profound truth from the public, whether or not they actually did. We already live in an age of conspiracy theories. Now the guardrails would truly shatter, because if U.F.O.s were real, despite decades of dismissals, who would remain trusted to say anything else was false? Certainly not the academics who’d laughed them off as nonsense, or the governments who would now be seen as liars.
“I’ve always resisted the conspiracy narrative around U.F.O.s,” Alexander Wendt, a professor of international security at Ohio State University who has written about U.F.O.s, told me. “I assume the governments have no clue what any of this is and they’re covering up their ignorance, if anything. That’s why you have all the secrecy, but people may think they were being lied to all along.”
The question, then, would be who could impose meaning on such an event. “Instead of a land grab, it would be a narrative grab,” Diana Pasulka, author of “American Cosmic: U.F.O.s, Religion, Technology,” told me. There would be enormous power — and money — in shaping the story humanity told itself. If we were to believe that the contact was threatening, military budgets would swell all over the world. A more pacific interpretation might orient humanity toward space travel or at least interstellar communication. Pasulka says she believes this narrative grab is happening even now, with the military establishment positioning itself as the arbiter of information over any U.F.O. events.
One lesson of the pandemic is that humanity’s desire for normalcy is an underrated force, and there is no single mistake as common to political analysis as the constant belief that this or that event will finally change everything. If so many can deny or downplay a disease that’s killed millions, dismissing some unusual debris would be trivial. “An awful lot of people would basically shrug and it’d be in the news for three days,” Adrian Tchaikovsky, the science fiction writer, told me. “You can’t just say, ‘Still no understanding of alien thing!’ every day. An awful lot of people would be very keen on continuing with their lives and routines no matter what.”
There is a thick literature on how evidence of alien life would shake the world’s religions, but I think Brother Guy Consolmagno, director of the Vatican Observatory, is quite likely right when he suggests that many people would simply say, “of course.” The materialist worldview that positions humanity as an island of intelligence in a potentially empty cosmos — my worldview, in other words — is the aberration. Most people believe, and have always believed, that we share both the Earth and the cosmos with other beings — gods, spirits, angels, ghosts, ancestors. The norm throughout human history has been a crowded universe where other intelligences are interested in our comings and goings, and even shape them. The whole of human civilization is testament to the fact that we can believe we are not alone and still obsess over earthly concerns.
This has even been true with aliens. The science fiction writer Kim Stanley Robinson reminded me that in the early 1900s it was widely but mistakenly believed that we had visual evidence of canals on Mars. “The scientific community seemed to have validated that finding, even though it was mainly Percival Lowell, but it’s hard to recapture now how general the assumption was,” he wrote in an email. “There being no chance of passage across space, it was assumed to be a philosophical point only, of interest but not world-changing for anyone.”
What might be more world-changing is the way nation-states fall to fighting over the debris, or even just the interpretation of the debris. There’s a long science fiction literature in which the prospect or reality of alien attack unites the human race — Alan Moore’s “Watchmen” and the movie “Independence Day,” to name a couple. But a more ambiguous contact might lead to more fractious results. “The scenario you outline would be politicized immediately on the international stage the Russians and Chinese would never believe us and frankly large numbers of Americans would be much more likely to believe that Russia or China was behind it,” Anne-Marie Slaughter, the chief executive of New America and a former director of policy planning at the State Department, told me. And that’s to say nothing of the tensions over who actually owned, and thus could research and profit from, the technologies embedded in the debris.
Slaughter went on to make a point about the difficulty of uniting humanity that I’d been contemplating as well. “After all, we are facing the destruction of the planet as we know it and have inhabited it for millennia over a couple of decades, and that does not even unify Americans, much less people around the globe.” If the real threat of climate change hasn’t unified countries and focused our technological and political efforts behind a common purpose, why should the more uncertain threat of aliens?
And yet, I’d like to believe it could be different. Steven Dick, the former chief historian for NASA, has argued that indirect contact with aliens — a radio signal, for instance — would be more like past scientific revolutions than past civilizational collisions. The correct analogy, he suggests, would be the realization that we share our world with bacteria, or that the Earth orbits the sun, or that life is shaped by natural selection. These upheavals in our understanding of the universe we inhabit changed the course of human science and culture, and perhaps this would, too. “There are times in science when just knowing that a thing is possible motivates an effort to get there,” Jacob Foster, a sociologist at U.C.L.A., told me. The knowledge that there were other space-faring societies might make us more desperate to join them or communicate with them.
There’s a school of thought that says interplanetary ambitions are ridiculous when we have so many terrestrial crises. I disagree. I believe our unsolved problems reflect a lack of unifying goals more than a surfeit of them. America made it to the moon in the same decade it created Medicare and Medicaid and passed the Civil Rights Act, and I don’t believe that to be coincidence.
A more cohesive understanding of ourselves as a species, and our planet as one ecosystem among others, might lead us to take more care with what we already have, and the sentient life we already know. The loveliest sentiment I came across while doing this (admittedly odd) reporting was from Agnes Callard, a philosopher at the University of Chicago. “You also asked how we should react,” she said over email. “I guess my preferred reaction would be for the knowledge that someone was watching to inspire us to be the best examples of intelligent life that we could be.”
I recognize this is a treacly place to end up: evidence of extraterrestrial life, or even surveillance, reminding us of what we should already know. But that doesn’t make it less true. Callard’s words brought to mind one of my favorite science fiction stories, “The Great Silence,” by the writer Ted Chiang (whom I interviewed here, in a conversation that explores this fable). In it, he imagines a parrot talking to the humans managing the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, for more than 50 years the largest single dish radio telescope on earth. There we are, creating technological marvels to find life in the stars, while we heedlessly drive wild parrots, among so many others species, toward extinction here at home.
“We’re a nonhuman species capable of communicating with them,” the parrot muses. “Aren’t we exactly what humans are looking for?”
The Young Investigator's Guide to Ancient Aliens
The Young Investigator&aposs Guide to Ancient Aliens was published July 21, 2015 by History Channel/A&E Network. It lists NO actual authors because no one would want their name connected to this tripe.
There is NO WAY I would purchase such a book, so thank you, libraries, for providing access. I suspect that the publishers made an effort to get it into libraries by using the HISTORY Channel brand as leverage. Because it’s there, it will get read. This is unfortunate because Can I give it a 0? I wish.
The Young Investigator's Guide to Ancient Aliens was published July 21, 2015 by History Channel/A&E Network. It lists NO actual authors because no one would want their name connected to this tripe.
There is NO WAY I would purchase such a book, so thank you, libraries, for providing access. I suspect that the publishers made an effort to get it into libraries by using the HISTORY Channel brand as leverage. Because it’s there, it will get read. This is unfortunate because this book is a piece of garbage.
The framing of the book is to promote the TV show. That is blatant. Both presentation outlets sow doubt about the body of knowledge derived by the scientific process. The book states “What we know COULD BE WRONG!” It never tells us why that "could be wrong". The text never includes what the standard, scientifically-supported explanations are for their stated “mysteries” such as the construction of the pyramids, Puma Punku, Stonehenge, and Coral Castle. They treat Atlantis, King Arthur, and a Hollow Earth as reasonable possibilities. The authors outright ignore the solid explanations for crystal skulls and the “Montauk monster”. The goal of this book is to keep people ignorant and to promote absurd explanations that make no sense and aren't at all helpful in understanding the real world.
The Ancient Alien (or Astronaut) theorists (they can’t call them scientists, they are more like pundits) are said to examine historical events for signs of ancient alien contact missed by archaeologists and historians throughout history. They “look for obvious connections between our civilization and those of other worlds”. Gee, they really think poorly of scientists and historians to assume they missed such incredible connections the first time around. THEY know better.
Conspiracy is one of the themes used in the book to help explain items that are inconvenient to them.
You will find the usual list of cranks cited as reputable researchers - von Däniken, Sitchin, Hoagland and their go-to spokesperson for speculative sciencey stuff -Giorgio Tsoukalos.
The methods they use in the book are unimaginative and foolish such as the appeal to the popularity: Millions of people believe what if its true? And, they bank on the argument from ignorance with a twist - we actually know how megalithic monuments were made but that info isn't provided since that would take effort. Apparently they can’t consult actual sources, or they just refuse to because finding out the truth is NOT their goal. They reference movies like “Signs” or “Cowboys and Aliens” as if to subtly suggest these had a basis in fact. And they add smiling green cartoon aliens throughout. It's all so MYSTERIOUS! Wooooooo.
“Whether the ancient Egyptians’ knowledge of the stars, and their beliefs about their gods came from genuine contact with extraterrestrials remains one of history’s most perplexing unanswered questions.”
p 52 Uhhh.
They misuse legitimate concepts like Fermi’s paradox and the “goldilocks zone” to erroneously support their speculation. Otherwise, they have NO support except that of the fringe researchers they prop up. Opinions of their “experts” are given undue credence no scientific sources are cited.
By page 70, I stopped making notations. I’d been overwhelmed. I'd concluded this publication had more than earned the “garbage” label. So I skimmed the rest about monsters from space and other fiction might call supposables - “suppose this is true” - presented as plausible. The ridiculously unintelligent tone of this book can be encapsulated in this quote from Tsoukalos on page 88:
“If today we are able to create a two-headed dog with six legs, is it possible that a similar creature existed thousands of years ago? I say ‘yes’”
I say, this is one of those things that isn’t even wrong it’s beyond stupid, it’s stupidiocy.
Here are more zinger supposables from the book:
Stonehenge was an alien landing pad,
Pyramids are power plants for alien ships,
The builder of Coral Castle in Florida moved material by reversing gravity,
Nazca lines and large native mounds act as “billboards for the sky gods”,
There was a worldwide energy grid for the alien spaceships,
Goliath from the Bible was a Bigfoot,
Aliens created ape-man hybrids.
Yep, this is insulting to the cultures that achieved these feats of art, architecture, and civilization. The supposable claims are insulting to credentialed scientists, and are travesties of history, archaeology, anthropology, cosmology, and geology.
The age level for this book is stated at 8-12. It’s my opinion that “juvenile literature” should not be childish and naive but should be enlightening and educational. This book only spreads serious misconceptions and embarrassing ignorance. It’s stupefyingly bad. . more
Aliens Worlds Guide
This is a project of David Lee and Good Vibes Mining. David and GVM met in Alien Worlds and have become great friends! To us Alien Worlds is about having fun, meeting people, creating friendships, gaming and NFTs (we love NFTs!)!! There are many different things to do in this metaverse – lots of places to meet people, create bonds, and be a part of a community – this project is meant to help new explorers see it all.
Communities – An ever growing list of amazing communities in the game. There are communities in this metaverse for everyone, people you will enjoy meeting, have fun with and form relationships with. The best way to find these is to look around!
Getting Started – How to set up your WAX Cloud Wallet. How to log into the game.
Alien Worlds Official Discord – This is the highest level of the community. Everyone should join.
- – The name says it all. – NFTs! NFTs! This is where everyone lists their current NFT events in the metaverse. – The best list of Events in the metaverse!! DJs / Team Events / Lots of fun!! – There are different give aways in the metaverse every day! This is the best list of them! – A place to show off a little!! A ton of fun!!
Buying and Selling Alien Worlds nfts – Information on the Atomic Hub Market place and Alcor exchanges
Choosing a land to mine on – What different land types and planets mean & how to make sure you have the best commission rate
Choosing minions– Which minions are the best
Choosing tools– Which tools are the best for Trilium and NFTS
Choosing weapons– Which weapon is the most efficient
Errors– How to fix errors
Errors – CPU and RAM errors explained in detail
Governance – Everything you need to know about planetary governance
Nebula Quests – Go on quests with friends and compete for amazing prizes
NFT tracking tool – See the latest Alien Worlds NFTS mined, track NFTS by wallets address as well
Roadmap – The exciting roadmap for the game
The Thunderdome– What it is and how it will work
Shining– What shining is and how to do it
Staking– Explaining the process of staking and unstaking Trilium to planets and what it does
"Ancient Aliens" Is Everything That's Wrong With America
I don’t know if you knew, but the Hebrews didn’t spend forty years in the Sinai after the Exodus because they’d incurred the wrath of God. And they didn’t leave that desert because the offending generation had died off. The chosen people were forced into the Promised Land because the algae-based-protein-bar machine that dispensed the “manna from heaven” they’d been eating finally broke down.
“Of course, [the machine] needed energy, for cultivating the algae, and this was produced, we postulate, by a small nuclear reactor,” says Rodney Dale, a wild-eyed madman.
This is the History Channel, circa 2009. “But,” asks the narrator, “If the Israelites’ survival depended upon the manna machine, where did they get it? Some believe they had stolen it from the Egyptians prior to their exodus. Other suspect extraterrestrials gave it to them as a humanitarian gesture to prevent their starvation in the desert.” The show is “Ancient Aliens,” and it’s everything that’s wrong in America.
What I mean is that when it debuted in 2009, “Ancient Aliens” put to work certain attitudes and argumentative techniques that have, in the age of Trump, come to dominate our discourse. “Ancient Aliens” is a more popular show than you might think, but I doubt it’s got much influence on the zeitgeist, and I know that it didn’t invent what it’s doing. Richard Hofstadter taught us a half-century ago that things like anti-intellectualism and the ‘paranoid style’ have been with us since at least 1776. “Ancient Aliens” was just the canary in the mine this time around.
Cards on the table, I realize that “Ancient Aliens” isn’t the only show in the History Channel’s lineup that’s gotten away from history as such.
“Ancient Aliens” wasn’t the network’s first show to break away from its formerly staid documentary style—“Ice Road Truckers” and “Ax Men,” which focused more on reality-style personal relationships and on-camera drama rather than exploring the history of northern trucking and lumberjacking, came out in 2007 and 2008. “Conspiracy?” and “Decoding the Past”—looking at universally debunked theories and trying to match history to prophecy, like those of Nostradamus, respectively—realized that Americans were much more interested in Dan Brown than they were in history books as early as 2005. But while those experiments used ancient prognostications and grassy-knoll-theorism to spice up their facts, “Ancient Aliens” put its spurious nonsense front and center.
The show’s bedrock is an inversion of Occam’s tool for sorting hypotheses. Call it Giorgio’s Razor:
Take the show’s investigation of the Saqqara Bird, a small wooden falcon removed from an Egyptian tomb in 1898. To archaeologists, it looks like a toy, maybe a weathervane.
To “ancient alien theorists,” it’s evidence that the Egyptians of the Old Kingdom had airplanes. To prove that hypothesis on the show, an “aviation and aerodynamics expert” builds a scale model of the bird to see if it will fly.
The series narrator Robert Clotworthy 1 intones over the footage that “during the [expert’s] tests, it was discovered that the only thing preventing the Saqqara bird from achieving flight was the lack of a rear stabilizing rudder, or elevator.” So they add the rudder, and airfoil wings, and discover that if you angle it upwards in a wind-tunnel, it’ll generate lift. Like literally any piece of wood.
The show asks: Did ancient Egyptians invent powered flight and leave exactly one child’s toy behind to prove it? Or might it be that the Saqqara bird looks aerodynamic and lacks a horizontal tail rudder because it’s, well, a bird? Applying Giorgio’s Razor reveals the answer.
Aliens were flying around in Egypt.
Even extraterrestrial intervention becomes banal when it’s behind every mysterious thing in history, and that approach wrecks any of the value that could be had from the show’s topics. Neil Postman argued in the 1980s that TV had given us a discourse that “denied interconnectedness, proceeded without context, argued the irrelevance of history, explained nothing, and offered fascination in place of complexity and coherence.” Until the election in 2016, “Ancient Aliens” was the fullest flowering of that trend.The show works to turn matters of expertise into questions of faith. Time after time, statements about belief don’t just contend with but demolish the testimony of actual experts. At the start of season two, the program explores Marcahuasi, a high Peruvian plateau filled with strange rock formations.
The camera pans over the landscape, and Clotworthy narrates:
Most geologists consider the many stone formations on the plateau to be naturally formed. Born of millions of years of erosion and other natural processes. But is there more here than first meets the eye? Some consider Marcahuasi to be a massive sculpture garden, filled with carvings left behind by an ancient civilization…Could this be not just a collection of rocks but a sanctuary of stone monuments made by people tens or even hundreds of thousands of years ago?
A parade of breathless ancient alien theorists follows Clothworthy and details Marcahuasi’s special energies and vibrations, extraterrestrial visitations, and potential as a landing site for Noah’s Ark, their every statement backed up by, “I believe,” “I believe,” “I believe.” The show, by way of Clotworthy’s narration, makes sure we know that compared to these luminaries, “most geologists” are a bunch of shit-kicking dirt-lookers.
Hofstadter traced anti-intellectualism to the founding of the republic, but the particular sneering smugness of the show towards science and experts in general is newer than it feels. Climate change is the sine qua non for anti-science “scholarship” in the US today, but even George W. Bush couldn’t write it off or deny it completely, either in 2001 or in 2007.
“Ancient Aliens” deployed its anti-scientism earlier than the G.O.P., and beat out Donald Trump’s beliefs about birth certificates by a full two years. Both they and the show rely on an attitude that Hannah Arendt called “vulgarity,” which, “with its cynical dismissal of respected standards and accepted theories carried with it a frank admission of the worst and a disregard for all pretenses,” something that viewers, whether of Fox News or “Ancient Aliens,” take not as a criminal condescension, but which they “mistake for courage and a new style of life.”
The courage of “Ancient Aliens” lies in telling its truths in the face of the “scientists” and “mainstream historians” that Clotworthy sets up and knocks down. It is brave in the same way that Trump is brave when he spits on the establishment, that Jeffrey Lord and the other conservative hacks are brave when they spit into the wind. And as I slogged through the show’s twelve seasons, that vulgarity became a full-on assault against truth, something as absurd to see on the History Channel as it has been in the White House.From the beginning, the evidence presented in “Ancient Aliens” was weak. The models, the re- and mis- and kind of un-interpretations of scripture, the half-explanations of history, all of it plain bunkum.
At various points, the series turns to the Anasazi, a Native American tribe that abandoned its cliff-carved civilization in Utah centuries ago. In a line of thinking possibly cribbed from the “X-Files,” Clotworthy explains that “some ancient astronaut theorists, like author David Childress, propose that there is in fact more to the disappearance of the Anasazi elders than a simple migration.” Cut to Childress, standing in front of a stone wall covered in Anasazi carvings. He indicates several spirals carved into the cliff.
“Archaeologists believe that they represent the sun. But some of these spirals are very unusual. One even has little spirals coming off of it. So you have to ask yourself, ‘Are these spirals in fact representations of some kind of portal? Some door to another dimension?’”
Each time, maybe predictably, the show was just lying. It’s not common that stones settle like they have at Yonaguni, but it’s not that rare either. It’s not really clear what the Dogon were talking about, and it’s likely that Europeans misinterpreted something they really wanted to hear. Some Italian dude either mistranslated a source or created the Alexander story out of whole cloth. After the fourth or fifth time it happened, I got tired of looking things up and began assuming that anything interesting on the show must be fake. It’s the same thing we do with whatever comes out of the President and his Twitter account.
The show turns by the second season from ancient to recent alien visits, and its fantastical history as quickly becomes conspiracy, a web of plots that ties together Roswell with Hitler, the Cold War with the Mexican Zone of Silence, and implicates what must be most of the world’s governments in extraterrestrial schemes.
Hofstadter noted that the paranoid in America make similar efforts to construct elaborate conspiratorial worldviews, and in the same way that Joe McCarthy and Robert Welch “offered a full-scale interpretation of our recent history in which Communists figure at every turn,” the current crop of right-wing fabulists have done as well as Ancient Aliens in creating an all-encompassing, through-a-glass vision of the world.
With the help of winks and nods from the G.O.P., the raving fantasy of the far right has become acknowledged reality for a huge number of Americans: 9/11 was a government plot Barack Obama is a Muslim Agenda 21 is a UN plan to take over the USA Pizzagate Seth Rich FEMA camps. It’s hard to listen to Clothworthy in a 2016 episode ask, “Was the Cold War really an orchestrated event intended to serve as a smokescreen for governments to harvest extraterrestrial technology?” And flip to Alex Jones trying to argue that the Newtown shooting was a false-flag operation on NBC and not realize that these two things are of a piece.
Hannah Arendt wrote that one of the strengths of totalitarian propaganda is not that it twists the truth but that it ignores truth entirely. Its content, for the members of the movement, “is no longer an objective issue about which people may have opinions, but has become as real and untouchable an element in their lives as the rules of arithmetic.” It is the leadership’s ability and willingness to swear, knowingly, to each new lie that allows the true believers that make up the body of the movement to forgo critical thought and mountains of contrary evidence.
As I got further and further into “Ancient Aliens,” I saw a similar dynamic emerge among the regulars, like Childress and Tsoukalos. In the first episode of Season 10, Childress goes out on a boat with two alien enthusiasts who think they’ve found something on the bottom of Lake Michigan. They drop a sonar rig in the water and a random jumble of rocks show up onscreen. Childress looks for a few seconds and says, “Yeah, this does look like an artificial alignment.” Later, one of the enthusiasts takes a camera underwater to show Childress a carving of a mastodon on one of the rocks.
You know, right there. On the rock.
Childress doesn’t miss a beat. “It does look like the stone has been carved. Yeah, you can see the legs and a trunk on it. Wow, that’s amazing. Yeah, I’m convinced!”
Whatever else about him, Dave Childress was in 2009 a serious man. He’d traveled the world and done the research and written books. Within the strange world of extraterrestrialists, he was an authority. But on the show, and on that boat, he became a kind of actor, part of the show’s own cynical hierarchy, performing belief for the two yokels and for us, the viewers.
Kellyanne Conway and Sean Spicer and even Paul Ryan were in their way serious people. They went to real schools and did real work. Paul Ryan, for all that he built his career on trying to do great evil in the world, was at least up front about it. Spicer had been known around DC as a stand-up guy. But they made it their jobs, not to shill for bad things they believe in—as Childress had pursued for most of his life a weak theory of aliens that he actually believed in—but for an ever-changing raft of lies that they’ve never countenanced, and which they admit in leaks and in private to know to be false.
Postman pretty famously contended that it would be A Brave New World for us and not 1984. But “Ancient Aliens” might be sending us hints that we don’t have to pick and choose. Trump’s neither charismatic enough to be our Hitler nor smart enough to be our Big Brother, but it might be that we’ve indulged our worst tendencies deeply and long enough to let Trump and his band of “crackpots and fools whose lack of intelligence and creativity is the best guarantee of their loyalty” to do us real and lasting harm. We reached a point in 2009 when one of the hoary institutions of respectable television felt it could better entertain us by throwing in with dangerous nonsense, and maybe it shouldn’t be surprising to us that the institutions of the real world—from the EPA now working to eliminate evidence of climate change to the White House’s ethics lawyers justifying out and out corruption—are following suit.
1 Clotworthy was, coincidentally, also the voice of Jim Raynor in the Starcraft games
Like everyone else, Jon Coumes is a struggling writer, and he produces his podcast on the failures of American foreign policy, Safe for Democracy, from Mexico.
Ellen Ripley has been in stasis for 57 years in an escape shuttle after destroying her ship, the Nostromo, to escape a lethal alien creature which slaughtered her crew. She is rescued and debriefed by her employers at the Weyland-Yutani Corporation, who are skeptical about her claim of alien eggs in a derelict ship on the exomoon LV-426, [a] since it is now the site of the terraforming colony Hadleys Hope. After contact is lost with the colony, Weyland-Yutani representative Carter Burke and Colonial Marine Lieutenant Gorman ask Ripley to accompany them to investigate. Still traumatized from her alien encounter, she agrees on the condition they exterminate the creatures. Ripley is introduced to the Colonial Marines and an android, Bishop, on the spaceship Sulaco.
A dropship delivers the expedition to the surface of LV-426, where they find the colony deserted. Makeshift barricades and battle signs are inside, but no bodies two live alien facehuggers in containment tanks and a traumatized young girl nicknamed Newt are the sole survivors. The crew finds the colonists beneath the fusion-powered atmosphere processing station and head to their location, descending into corridors covered with alien secretions. At the center of the station, the Marines find the cocooned colonists serving as incubators for the creatures' offspring. The Marines kill an infant alien after it bursts from a colonist's chest, rousing multiple adult aliens who ambush the Marines and kill or capture many of them. When the inexperienced Gorman panics, Ripley assumes command, takes control of their armored personnel carrier, and rams the nest to rescue Corporal Hicks and Privates Hudson and Vasquez. Hicks orders the dropship to recover the survivors, but a stowaway alien kills the pilots and it crashes into the station. The survivors barricade themselves inside the colony.
Ripley discovers Burke ordered the colonists to investigate the derelict spaceship containing the alien eggs, intending to profit by recovering them for biological weapon research. Before she can expose him, Bishop informs the group that the dropship crash damaged the power-plant cooling system it will soon explode, destroying the colony. He volunteers to reach the colony transmitter and remotely pilot the Sulaco ' s remaining dropship to the surface.
After falling asleep in the medical laboratory, Ripley and Newt awaken to find themselves trapped with the two released facehuggers. Ripley triggers a fire alarm to alert the Marines, who rescue them and kill the creatures. She accuses Burke of releasing the facehuggers to impregnate her and Newt, allowing him to smuggle the embryos through Earth's quarantine. The power is suddenly cut, and aliens attack through the ceiling. In the ensuing firefight, the aliens kill Burke, subdue Hudson, and injure Hicks Gorman and Vasquez sacrifice themselves to stall the horde. Newt is separated from Ripley and captured.
Ripley and Hicks reach Bishop in the second dropship, but she refuses to abandon Newt. The group travels to the processing station, allowing a heavily-armed Ripley to enter the hive and rescue Newt. Escaping, they encounter the alien queen in her egg chamber. When an egg begins to open, Ripley uses her weapon to destroy the eggs and the queen's ovipositor. Pursued by the enraged queen, Ripley and Newt join Bishop and Hicks on the dropship and escape moments before the station explodes consuming the colony in a nuclear blast.
On the Sulaco the group is ambushed by the queen, who stowed away in the dropship's landing gear. The queen tears Bishop in half and advances on Newt, but Ripley fights the creature with an exosuit cargo-loader and expels it through an airlock into space. Ripley, Newt, Hicks, and the critically-damaged Bishop enter hypersleep for their return trip to Earth.
- as Ellen Ripley:
- Carrie Henn as Rebecca "Newt" Jorden:
A young girl in the Hadleys Hope colony on LV-426 
The sole survivor of an alien attack on her ship, the Nostromo as Dwayne Hicks:
A corporal in the Colonial Marines  as Carter J. Burke:
A Weyland-Yutani Corporation representative  as Bishop:
An android aboard the Sulaco
The Colonial Marine cast includes privates Hudson (Bill Paxton), Vasquez (Jenette Goldstein), Drake (Mark Rolston) Frost (Ricco Ross), Spunkmeyer (Daniel Kash),  Crowe (Tip Tipping), and Wierzbowski (Trevor Steedman),  and corporals Dietrich (Cynthia Dale Scott) and Ferro (Colette Hiller). Al Matthews played Sergeant Apone, and William Hope played the Marines' inexperienced commanding officer Gorman.   In addition to the main cast, Aliens featured Paul Maxwell as Van Leuwen (a member of the board reviewing Ripley's competence) and Barbara Coles as the cocooned colonist killed when an alien bursts from her chest.   Carl Toop played an alien warrior. 
Some scenes removed from the film's theatrical version were restored in subsequent releases.  Additional cast credited for these scenes included Newt's father, Russ Jorden (Jay Benedict),   and her mother Anne (Holly de Jong).   Henn's brother, Christopher, played her brother Timmy in the film.   Mac McDonald played colony administrator Al Simpson.   Weaver's mother, Elizabeth Inglis, made a cameo appearance as Ripley's daughter Amanda. 
Early development Edit
After the success of Alien (1979), Brandywine Productions was eager to make a sequel. Even so, it took seven years for the sequel to be completed.   20th Century Fox president Alan Ladd Jr. was supportive of the proposed Alien II, but left before the project to found The Ladd Company production studio and was replaced by Norman Levy.   According to Brandywine co-founder David Giler, Levy thought the sequel would be a "disaster". Levy disputed this account, saying he wanted to make Alien II but was concerned about production costs.  The studio thought Alien ' s success was a fluke, it was not profitable enough to warrant a follow-up, and audiences would not return for a sequel.  Box-office returns for horror films were also declining. 
Development was further delayed when Giler and Brandywine co-founders Walter Hill and Gordon Carroll sued Fox for unpaid profits from Alien. Using Hollywood accounting methods, Fox had declared Alien a financial loss despite its earnings of over $100 million against a $9–$11 million budget. According to the studio, Alien was a low-earning film and a potential box-office failure. Brandywine's lawsuit was settled by early 1983: Fox would finance the development of Alien II, but was not required to distribute the film.  
New Fox studio head Joe Wizan was receptive to a sequel, although other executives remained noncommittal.   Giler's development executive Larry Wilson began looking for a scriptwriter by mid-1983.   He came across the script for the in-development science fiction film, The Terminator (1984), written by James Cameron. With Cameron's collaborative scriptwriting efforts alongside Sylvester Stallone on Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985), Wilson was convinced to show The Terminator 's script to Giler, Hill, and Carroll.   By November 1983, Cameron submitted a 42-page treatment (a story outline) for Alien II—written in three days—based on Giler and Hill's suggestion of "Ripley and soldiers".    The studio had a mixed reaction, with one executive calling it a constant stream of horror without character development.   Negotiations to sell the sequel rights to Rambo developers Mario Kassar and Andrew G. Vajna failed and the project stalled again. 
By July 1984, Lawrence Gordon had replaced Wizan. With few projects in development, Gordon looked at sequels of Fox's existing properties and came across the Alien II treatment. Gordon said he was surprised no one had pursued it already.  Production of The Terminator was delayed for nine months because star Arnold Schwarzenegger was contractually obligated to film Conan the Destroyer (1984). Cameron used the time to develop his treatment, expanding it to ninety pages.   He drew ideas from "Mother", one of his story concepts about an alien on a space station involving a power-loader suit.  This version was better-received by Fox executives and Gordon,   but Cameron also wanted to direct the project. 
Because Cameron was a relatively new director, the studio was reluctant to grant his request his only film to have been released at the time was Piranha II: The Spawning (1982), a low-budget, independent horror film. His credibility was elevated following the surprise financial and critical success of The Terminator in late 1984, and Gordon gave him the job.    Because of his low expectations for The Terminator, Cameron spent much of his free time during its production developing and trying out ideas for Alien II.   Cameron's collaborative partner and girlfriend, Gale Anne Hurd, was not taken seriously as a producer.  Fox did not believe Hurd would stand up to Cameron, but the director said she was the only person who would.  Hurd had several of her industry associates contact Fox executives to convince them she was a legitimate producer.  Cameron said people tried to convince him not to take the job, believing anything good about the film would be attributed to Alien director Ridley Scott and anything negative to Cameron, but he was determined to make it.  Scott said he was never offered the chance to direct the sequel, possibly because he was difficult to work with on the original.  The film's title, Aliens, reportedly came from Cameron writing "Alien" on a whiteboard during a pitch meeting and adding a "$" suffix.  
Cameron turned in the finished script in February 1985, hours before a Hollywood writer's strike. The script was well-received, but Fox executives (including chairman Barry Diller) were concerned about the budget. Fox estimated the cost as close to $35 million, but Hurd said it would be closer to $15.5 million. Diller offered $12 million, prompting Cameron and Hurd to quit the project. Gordon negotiated with Diller until he relented, and Cameron and Hurd returned.  In April 1985, conflict turned to the cast Fox did not want Weaver to return because they expected her to demand a large salary.   Cameron and Hurd were insistent Weaver return as the solo star Fox refused, saying they would damage the studio's negotiating power with Weaver's agent. Cameron and Hurd again left the project, marrying and going on a honeymoon. When they returned, the Aliens project was ready to move forward. Cameron credited Gordon with Aliens ' being greenlit. 
The director had seen Alien while he was working as a truck driver, and remembered his fellow audience members' reactions to what they saw on screen. Cameron did not understand at first why Alien needed a sequel, believing it was a "perfect" film and it would be difficult to recreate the emotion and novelty of the original. He and Hurd agreed to combine the horror of Alien with the action of The Terminator. According to Hill, Cameron said if the first film could be compared to a haunted attraction, Aliens should be like a roller coaster.  Cameron believed in having a strong female heroine to distinguish his films from typical Hollywood action fare, and wrote the script with a picture of Weaver on his desk.  He referred to The Terminator, and how he removed the normal protective forces from Sarah Connor so she had to fend for herself.  Cameron had also always wanted to make a film about space infantry. 
Weaver rejected a number of offers to return. She was only mildly interested after reading Cameron's script,  and had to be convinced Aliens was not being made exclusively for financial reasons.   Weaver reportedly received a $1 million (equivalent to $2.36 million in 2020) salary and a percentage of the box-office profits, the highest salary of her career at the time.  Negotiations were reportedly so lengthy Cameron and Hurd told Schwarzenegger's agent they intended to write Ripley out of the movie (knowing Weaver's agent would be told) terms were reached shortly afterward. 
An unknown actor was sought to play Newt, and Henn was scouted by casting agents at her school in Lakenheath, England. Although she lacked acting experience, Cameron said she had a "great face and expressive eyes".  James Remar was cast as Hicks on the recommendation of his close friend Hill but left shortly into filming, ostensibly due to urgent family matters or creative differences with Cameron. Remar later admitted he was fired after being arrested for drug possession.    Hurd hired Michael Biehn the following Friday.   Stephen Lang also auditioned for the role. 
Paxton credited his casting as Hudson to a chance encounter with Cameron at Los Angeles International Airport, during which he mentioned he would be interested in a role. The studio supported Paxton's casting because of positive feedback for his performance in Weird Science (1985).  He was concerned the character would annoy audiences until he realized he was comic relief for the tense scenes.  Cameron rewrote the role for the actor.  Henriksen, worried about appearing as the android Bishop after the success of Ian Holm in Alien and Rutger Hauer in Blade Runner (1982), played the character like an innocent child who pitied the short-lived humans. Although he suggested distinctive eye pupils for Bishop when the character was alerted and had lenses mocked up, Cameron felt they made Bishop look more frightening than the aliens.  Biehn, Paxton, and Henriksen had worked with Cameron on The Terminator.   Aliens was Reiser's first major theatrical role, following small parts in films like Beverly Hills Cop (1984). 
The Colonial Marines cast was a mix of British and American actors who underwent three weeks of intensive training with the British Special Air Service (SAS).     Vietnam War veteran Al Matthews (Apone) helped to train the actors, teaching them not to point their weapons at people because their blanks were still hazardous.   The training was intended to help the marine cast to develop camaraderie and treat the rest of the cast (Weaver, Reiser, and Hope) as outsiders.   Biehn's late casting caused him to miss the training, and he said he regretted being unable to customize his armor like the other actors had (since he inherited Remar's).   Cameron created a backstory for each marine,  and instructed the actors to read the novel Starship Troopers.  
Vasquez was Goldstein's first feature-film role. She credited her physique to being out of work and going to the gym.   She gained an additional 10 pounds (4.5 kg) at Cameron's request. The Caucasian Goldstein wore dark contact lenses and underwent an hour of makeup to cover her freckles and darken her skin to appear more Latina she studied gang interviews to develop her demeanor and accent.  Ricco Ross (Frost) was committed to Full Metal Jacket (1987), whose filming schedule overlapped for a week with Aliens ' . Although Cameron offered to let Ross join the filming later, Ross was concerned Kubrick's projects often overran their schedules and opted for Aliens instead.  Ralston misled the filmmakers to help get his part he had finished filming Revolution (1985), and implied he was its most-prominent actor after Al Pacino.  William Hope (Gorman) was cast as Hudson before Cameron and Hurd decided to take the character in a different direction. 
Cynthia Dale Scott (Dietrich) was an aspiring singer when she was cast.  Colette Hiller (Ferro) was upset she had to cut her hair short for the role, since she was getting married afterwards. Although she made the filmmakers buy her a long, blonde wig, she never wore it.  Trevor Steadman (Wiezbowski) was a stuntman rather than an actor,  and Aliens was Daniel Kash's (Spunkmeyer) first film role. He offered Cameron his coat if he got the part, and also auditioned for Hudson.  The actors stayed at the Holiday Inn in Langley, Berkshire during filming. Paxton described the actors' time outside work positively: "God, we had the best time . We all hung very hard together. That's where I first met [Henriksen], who I fell in love with. [Matthews] . was a really good spirit to have around, with a great voice. And all these hilarious British characters, like [Steadman], the stuntman, who used to grab my bicep and go, 'Blimey, more meat on a cat's cock! ' " 
Principal photography began in September 1985, with a 75 day schedule.    The budget was reported to be $18.5 million, in addition to film prints and marketing.  Filming was primarily at Pinewood Studios in Buckinghamshire near London, because of its large sets and the relatively lower cost of filming in England.      Before Remar was fired, he accidentally shot a hole through the set of Frank Oz's Little Shop of Horrors it was being filmed on an adjacent stage.  
Filming was tumultuous.   Cameron, a Canadian, was unfamiliar with British film-industry traditions such as tea breaks which interrupted production for up to an hour each weekday he was frustrated at losing hours of filming every week.    In his book, The Making of Aliens, J. W. Rinzler described Cameron coming onto the set as George Lucas had before him for Star Wars (1977), but Cameron was aggressive and certain of what he wanted, which irked the crew. If he wanted to modify a scene (such as its lighting) in accordance with his vision, he did not involve the unionized crew. 
The crew was dismissive of Cameron for his relative inexperience, thinking he had not done enough to earn such a prominent position and Hurd had her job only because she was his partner.    Cinematographer Dick Bush insisted on lighting the alien hive brightly (counter to Cameron's request), and was eventually replaced with Adrian Biddle.  First assistant director Derek Cracknell also ignored Cameron's requests.   Gale described the situation: "[Cameron] would ask him to set up a shot one way and [Cracknell] would say, 'Oh no no no, I know what you want,' . Then he'd do it wrong and the whole set would have to be broken down."  The situation deteriorated until Cameron and Hurd fired Cracknell and the Pinewood crew walked out in the middle of the day. 
Cameron called Fox for advice and became determined to move the production out of England until Hurd convinced him otherwise. The situation was more difficult because the number of films simultaneously in production meant the crew could not be easily exchanged. Cameron and Hurd gathered the crew to discuss their grievances Cameron explained the importance of the production, and any member of the crew who could not support it should volunteer to be replaced. The crew agreed to support Cameron if he supported their scheduled working hours.  The relationship between filmmakers and crew remained cool when filming concluded at Pinewood, Cameron told the crew: "This has been a long and difficult shoot, fraught by many problems . but the one thing that kept me going, through it all, was the certain knowledge that one day I would drive out the gate of Pinewood and never come back, and that you sorry bastards would still be here".  He described most of the crew as "lazy, insolent, and arrogant".  Paxton called the crew's work impeccable, but their attitude more relaxed than the American crews to which they were accustomed. 
The alien nest was filmed in the decommissioned Acton Lane Power Station in London, and the set was left in place until the 1989 superhero film Batman was filmed there.   While filming the dropship descent from the Sulaco, shaking collapsed the set roof onto the cast and crew. Most of the cast were unharmed, but Cameron's head was cut by a large piece of debris.   Because of the tight budget, Hurd made Cameron pay for an early scene of a laser cutting Ripley free from her hyposleep chamber.   According to Henriksen, Paxton was unaware he would be involved in the knife-trick scene until it was filmed Henriksen nicked Paxton's finger during the reshoot.  Early, establishing scenes were filmed near the end of principal photography to capture the bond between cast and characters. 
Some improvisation was encouraged.  Weaver discussed tweaks to her character with Cameron on set, believing she understood how Ripley would act.  Her line "Get away from her, you bitch!" had to be filmed in one take due to the tight schedule remaining, and the actress thought she had messed it up.  Paxton believed he was not good at improvisation, and discussed ideas with Cameron before filming. One of his signature lines, "Game over man, game over", originated when Paxton developed a backstory for Hudson in which he was trained on simulators.  Henn found it hard to act afraid of the aliens (since she was fond of the actors in the suits), and imagined a dog was chasing her.  Other cast members spent time with Henn between scenes, including Weaver and Paxton (who would color or craft things with her).   Biehn said he and Paxton spent much of their free time together.  Weaver gave a bouquet of flowers to each actor on the day their death scene was filmed and gave Reiser a bouquet of dead flowers.  Despite the difficulties during filming, Fox was satisfied with the daily footage Aliens was delivered on time and on budget. 
Post-production began in late April 1986,  and Ray Lovejoy edited the film.  Several scenes were removed from Aliens ' theatrical release, including Ripley learning about her daughter's death and a cocooned Burke begging her for death.  Fox and Hurd suggested removing a long opening scene detailing the lives of the colonists, Newt's family discovering the derelict alien ship, and her father being attacked by a facehugger, because it ruined the film's pacing and sense of mystery.   Two scenes with James Remar as Hicks (shown from the back) were used in the film. 
Cameron's final edit was two hours, 17 minutes long. Fox wanted the film to be under two hours so it could be shown more times per day in theaters, increasing its revenue potential. Fox production president Scott Rudin flew to England to ask Cameron and Hurd if they could cut another 12 minutes Cameron was concerned further cuts would make the film nonsensical, and Rudin relented. 
James Horner became acquainted with Cameron early in their careers, when they worked for director Roger Corman. Aliens was Horner and Cameron's first collaboration, one which Horner called a "nightmare".   He arrived in London to compose the score, expecting a six-week schedule. There was no film for him to score, however Cameron was still filming and editing, and Horner had only three weeks to come up with a score.    The producers were unwilling to give him any more time, and he was scheduled to begin scoring The Name of the Rose (1986) shortly afterwards. 
Horner recorded the score at Abbey Road Studios with the London Symphony Orchestra.   His schedule was so tight the score for the climactic battle between Ripley and the queen was written overnight. Cameron first heard the score while it was being recorded by the orchestra, and did not like it however, it was too late to make changes. The Terminator with composer Brad Fiedel's synth-inspired tracks had allowed Cameron regular feedback and rapid implementation of changes, but he had no experience managing orchestral music.  Cameron cut the score up, using pieces where he believed they fit best he inserted pieces of Jerry Goldsmith's Alien score and hired unknown composers to fill gaps.   The director said in a later interview he thought the score was good, but did not fit the scenes he had filmed.  Horner's "alien sting" sound was initially only used once, during the scene with the cocooned woman. Cameron initially disliked it, but eventually used it throughout the film.  Unused portions of Horner's Aliens score were used in 1988's Die Hard.  
Aliens ' special effects began development by May 1985, supervised by John Richardson and developed by a 40-person team at Stan Winston Studio.    Miniatures and optical effects were created by L.A. Effects Group. Cameron avoided using bigger special effects studios because he lacked contacts with them and believed his hands-on approach would not be welcomed.  He avoided hiring too many Alien crew members because he did not want to be restricted by loyalties to the first film. Some crew did return, often with a higher status (such as Crispian Sallis, Alien focus puller and Aliens set decorator).   Cameron had enjoyed returning artist Ron Cobb's work on Alien.  Conceptual artist Syd Mead was recruited, since the director was a fan of his work on films such as 2010: The Year We Make Contact (1984). 
Sets and technology Edit
Mead designed the Sulaco, the marines' spaceship. He conceived it as a large sphere with antennae, but Cameron wanted it to be flatter the full craft had to pass the camera, and a sphere would not work with the film's aspect ratio.  Mead designed the craft as a commercial freighter carrying a military unit. Its exterior was designed with a row of loading doors, a crane, and large gun fixtures to defend against threats.  Mirrors were used as a cost-cutting measure to increase the number of sleeping pods on the Sulaco and add a power loader.  Cobb designed the Sulaco 's dropship interiors, the marines' land vehicle, the armored personnel carrier (APC), and exteriors of the colony and its vehicles.    The Sulaco ' s dropship was designed to be life-size, for use on the Sulaco set,  but a smaller replica was used for some shots.  The APC was a disguised pushback tug for a Boeing 747.  The alien derelict spacecraft, originally used in Alien, had been in historian Bob Burns III' driveway since the first film was made. 
Most of the colony, apart from the main entrance used by the marines, was constructed in scale miniature form. The set was about 80-foot (24 m) long to accommodate the sixth-scale APC replica. The set was so large it had to be laid out diagonally across the stage, and forced perspective was used to add in buildings that would otherwise not fit.  Cobb used a stylized design for the colony, resembling a western frontier town. It features a makeshift construction from cargo containers, broken filming equipment, and beer crates.  The alien nest scene was one of the earliest filmed Weaver's participation was delayed by three weeks because of production issues on her previous film Half Moon Street (1986), and the scene was one of the few not involving her. The Acton Power Station location was filled with decaying asbestos and three weeks were spent having it professionally cleaned. During this time, the alien hive was fabricated in clay from which hundreds of fiberglass and vacuum formed castings were made and installed at the station over a further three weeks.  Cameron wanted to vertically pan as the marines enter the hive, but disguising the area above the marines would be time-intensive. A hanging miniature was made about 12-foot (3.7 m) square from plywood and styrofoam, hung just above the actors' heads and carefully blended into the larger set. After Remar was replaced, Cameron wanted to reshoot the scene but the miniature had been destroyed Cameron was able to edit the scene to conceal Remar. 
The marines' smart guns weighed 65 to 70 pounds (29 to 32 kg), and were constructed from German MG 42 anti-aircraft machine guns attached to a steadicam and augmented with motorcycle parts.   Since getting in and out of the smart-gun rig was difficult, the actors kept them on when not filming.  The pulse rifle was made from a Thompson submachine gun and a Franchi SPAS-12 pump-action shotgun in a futuristic shell.  Weaver was opposed to weapons in general, but Cameron explained weapons were secondary to the core narrative of Ripley bonding with (and protecting) Newt.    Weaver found using the weapons strange and difficult, due to their weight and her concern about pulling the wrong trigger.  
A cast was made of Henn's upper body and her stunt double's legs to construct a lightweight dummy for Weaver to hold when carrying a gun Henn's weight plus a gun would have been too heavy.  Goldstein had also not handled a gun before, and held her weapon incorrectly in closeups Hurd stood in for her instead.  The flamethrowers were functional. The art department had covered the sets in an unspecified substance to artificially age them the flamethrowers vaporized it, causing fire and heavy smoke. Goldstein struggled to breathe, and (since improvisation was encouraged) Paxton thought she was acting until he also became breathless.  
The nuclear explosion of the colony in the film's finale was created by shining a light bulb through cotton.  Reebok developed custom Reebok Pump shoes for Weaver to wear in the film. 
Creature effects Edit
H. R. Giger, who designed the Alien creature, was not involved in Aliens and was reportedly unhappy about it.  According to Hurd, Giger was contractually obligated to Poltergeist II: The Other Side (1986) and Fox was not allowed to negotiate with him.  Giger was replaced by special-effects creator Stan Winston. Cameron (a designer) also contributed to designs, but was not as concerned with the warrior aliens because they were onscreen only briefly. 
The aliens were played by dancers and stuntmen in lightweight costumes, which allowed them to move quickly. A number of 8-foot (2.4 m) mannequins were used for aliens which were contorted into inhuman poses.  Although it appears hordes of alien creatures are in the film, there were only 12 alien suits: simple, black leotards covered in molded foam for faster-moving shots, and detailed models with articulated upper bodies and mouths for closeups.  When the aliens were shot and destroyed, puppets were hung up and detonated. The aliens' acidic blood was a combination of tetrachloride, cyclohexylamine, acetic acid, and yellow dye.  Winston added arms to the chestburster alien form (since the adult form had arms), explaining how it could drag itself out of a host's chest. Two chestburster puppets were used: a reinforced one, and an articulated one for movement. A puppeteer punched the former through a fabricated latex-foam chest the scene took several takes to film, because it could not pierce the clothing.  
Cameron designed the alien queen  and worked with Winston on several concepts, including large puppets, miniatures, and costumes with several people inside. A frame was built large enough to hold two people, covered in black polythene bags, and hung on a crane. The prototype was a success, and Cameron wrote the alien-queen scene.   The final alien queen was a 14-foot (4.3 m) puppet made of lightweight polyurethane foam.  Two people sat inside to control the arms the legs were controlled by rods connected at the ankles, and a separate person whipped the tail around with fishing line. The head was manipulated with a combination of servomotors and hydraulics controlled by up to four people.   The effect was hidden by lighting, steam, slime, and smoke.  
The Stan Winston Studio had not used hydraulics before, and considered them a learning experience. They were essential for moving larger parts of the queen puppet, including the head a foot press in the body could hydraulically move the tail up and down.  Shane Mahan sculpted the head by sight based on a maquette, since computer technology to scale up the model's design did not yet exist it took several weeks to sculpt.  Two heads were built: a lightweight, fragile one, and another which could survive some damage. Each was articulated with hydraulics and cables to control the queen's mouth and lips. 
To create the effect of the queen piercing Bishop's chest with her tail, Tom Woodruff Jr. and Alec Gillis constructed a chestplate for Henriksen with a rubber segment of the queen's tail flattened against it. The tail was pulled forward by wire, apparently exploding through Bishop's torso. A rigid piece of tail (attached to a body harness) was used to show more of the tail moving through Bishop, and Henriksen was leveraged upward as if he was being lifted by the tail. To complete the effect, a dummy of Bishop was constructed with a spring-loaded mechanism which would forcibly separate his upper and lower body, as if the queen had ripped him in half. Once separated, Henriksen's upper body was below the set and a fake torso attached up to his shoulders. The android blood was milk, and after several days of filming it was sour and foul-smelling. 
John Richardson designed the mechanical power loader exosuit, with input from Mead. Like the queen, a prototype was built out of wood and polythene bags stuffed with newspaper to see how the movement would work.    The finished design was so cumbersome that stuntman John Lees, in a black skinsuit, operated it from behind.   The battle between the queen and power loader was choreographed extensively, as Weaver risked serious injury battling a large, unwieldy animatronic.  The camera was sometimes moved around to simulate subjects moving faster. The scene of the queen running at Ripley was one of the more difficult shots the wires and rods had to be concealed, since they could not be removed in post-production.  Miniatures were used for parts of the scene with go motion, a version of stop motion with motion blur added. 
The 1986 summer film season began in mid-May. The season had been starting earlier each year as studios attempted to beat each other with their biggest films. Fifty-five films were scheduled for release between May and September, including the action drama Top Gun and the comedic Sweet Liberty. The season was not expected to break financial records set in previous years due to fewer sequels (Poltergeist II: The Other Side and Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives), anticipated blockbusters, and films by Steven Spielberg or starring popular comedians which had dominated the earlier half of the decade. Some industry experts also blamed the burgeoning home-video market, which had grown from 7 million rentals in 1983 to 58 million by 1985.   Films expected to do well were aimed at younger audiences and featured comedy or horror, such as Back to School, Ferris Bueller's Day Off and SpaceCamp.  Some films targeted at adults were also seen as potential successes, including Legal Eagles, Ruthless People and Cobra. 
Aliens was seen as a potential sleeper hit based on positive industry word-of-mouth during filming, "enthusiastic" industry screenings, and favorable pre-release reviews.    The film's success was considered to depend on its ability to attract audiences outside the young males and blue-collar workers typical for the genre.  Biehn and Paxton sneaked into a press screening for Aliens, since they had not been allowed to see the finished film.  The film's tagline was, "This time, it's war". 
Box office Edit
Aliens began a wide North American release on July 18, 1986.  During its opening weekend, the film earned $10.1 million from 1,437 theaters—an average of $6,995 per theater. It was the weekend's number-one film, ahead of the martial-arts drama The Karate Kid Part II ($5.6 million in its fifth weekend) and the black comedy Ruthless People ($4.5 million in its fourth weekend).  Based on its opening-five-day total ($13.4 million), Aliens was anticipated to become the summer's top film and surpass The Karate Kid Part II, Back to School and Top Gun.   These early figures exceeded Fox's expectations.  The Los Angeles Times reported long lines at theatres, even on weekday afternoons. 
It retained the number-one position in its second weekend with an additional gross of $8.6 million, ahead of the debuting comedy-drama Heartburn ($5.8 million) and The Karate Kid Part II ($5 million).  Aliens remained the number-one film of its third weekend with a gross of $7.1 million, ahead of the debuts of Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives ($6.8 million) and the comedy Howard the Duck ($5.1 million).   The film fell to third place in its fifth weekend with a gross of $4.30 million, behind the debuts of the science-fiction horror film The Fly ($7 million) and the comedy Armed and Dangerous ($4.33 million).  Aliens was one of the top ten highest-grossing films for 11 weeks. 
By the end of its theatrical run, the film had grossed about $85.1 million.   This figure made it the year's seventh highest-grossing film, behind Back to School ($91.3 million), the science-fiction film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home ($109.6 million), The Karate Kid Part II ($115.1 million), Platoon (138.5 million), the action comedy Crocodile Dundee ($174.8 million) and Top Gun ($176.8 million).   Aliens ' box-office returns to the studio, minus the theaters' share, was $42.5 million. 
Box-office figures outside North America are inconsistent and not available for all 1986 films. According to the box-office tracking websites Box Office Mojo and The Numbers, Aliens earned from $45.9 million to $98.1 million this gives it a worldwide gross of $131.1 million to $183.3 million, making it the year's fourth-highest-grossing film of 1986 behind Platoon ($138 million), Crocodile Dundee ($328.2 million), and Top Gun ($356.8 million), or the third-highest-grossing film behind Crocodile Dundee and Top Gun.   According to Fox's 1992 estimate, Aliens had earned $157 million worldwide.  The film was considered a success. 
Critical response Edit
Aliens opened to generally-positive reviews.  It appeared on the cover of Time magazine (July 1986), which called it "The Summer's Scariest Movie".  Audience polls by CinemaScore reported moviegoers gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale. 
Reviewers generally agreed Aliens was a worthy successor to Alien.   Variety and Walter Goodman said it could not replicate the novelty of Alien, but Aliens compensated with special effects, technique, and a constant stream of set-piece thrills and scary scenes.   Variety added Aliens was made by an expert craftsman, implying its predecessor was more artistic endeavor.  Sheila Benson said Aliens was clever and ironically funny, but lacked Alien 's pure horror. Benson attributed this to an overabundance of creature effects in the intervening years, particularly the 1982 science-fiction horror film The Thing (which, Benson said, took alien monstrosities to an extreme). 
According to Rick Kogan, Aliens demonstrated science-fiction horror could still be entertaining after many poorly-received Alien-derived films.  Dave Kehr and Richard Schickel called it a rare sequel which surpassed the original, and Kehr appreciated the action used to develop the characters. Schickel wrote the film had evolved from Alien, giving Weaver new emotional depths to explore.   Jay Scott said the talented Cameron had redefined the war film, combining Rambo with Star Wars.  Kogan agreed Cameron possessed a knack for action pacing and excitement, but Kehr believed Cameron pushed some elements beyond believability.  
Roger Ebert called the film's last hour "painfully, unremittingly intense" in horror and action, leaving him emotionally drained and unhappy. Ebert believed it could not be defined as entertainment, despite his admiration of the filmmaking craft on display.  Dennis Fischer wrote for The Hollywood Reporter, however, the unrelenting scenes of action and suspense worked for Aliens as they had in The Terminator tension was created by placing the characters in successive, increasingly-difficult situations. According to Fischer, though, Cameron mistakenly thought over-long scenes created suspense.  Gene Siskel was more critical, describing the film as "one extremely violent, protracted attack on the senses . Some people have praised the technical excellence of Aliens. Well, the Eiffel Tower is technically impressive, but I wouldn't want to watch it fall apart on people for two hours."  In the Orlando Sentinel, Jay Boyar called it the Jaws of the 1980s: the most "intensely shocking" film in years. 
Reviewers consistently praised Weaver's performance.   Benson called her the film's "white-hot core" around whose "defiant intelligence" and "sensual athleticism" Aliens was built, and Ripley returned not for vengeance but out of compassion.  Ebert credited Weaver's sympathetic performance with holding the film together.  Kogan compared her to a more attractive John Rambo (Sylvester Stallone's action character).  Scott agreed, saying Weaver made action stars like Stallone and Schwarzenegger look like male pin-up models. He described her as the ultimate adventure heroine, balancing action with femininity and maternal instincts.  Critical of the film overall as a "mechanical" and "inflated example of formula gothic", Pauline Kael praised Weaver: "With her great cheekbones, her marvelous physique, and her lightness of movement, Weaver seems to take over by natural authority and her strength as an actress. Her surprisingly small, tense mouth holds all the suspense in the story . Weaver gives the movie a presence without her it’s a B picture that lacks the subplots and corny characters that can make B pictures amusing." 
Most of the cast was also praised, particularly Biehn, Goldstein, Henriksen, Henn and Reiser.    Benson, however, noted less time was spent exploring the new characters than was spent in Alien.  Schickel said Henn played her character as endearingly brave and clever, without self-pity.  Benson praised Horner's "rumitative, intelligent" music,  but Fischer criticized it for borrowing too much from Goldsmith's score and Horner's work on Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984). 
Aliens received two awards at the 1987 Academy Awards: Best Sound Effects Editing (Don Sharpe) and Best Visual Effects (Robert Skotak, Stan Winston, John Richardson, Suzanne Benson). Weaver was nominated for Best Actress, losing to Marlee Matlin for the romantic drama Children of a Lesser God).  Weaver's was the first Best Actress nomination for a science-fiction film, when the genre was given little respect.   The film received four other nominations: Best Original Score for Horner (losing to Herbie Hancock for the musical drama Round Midnight) Best Art Director for Peter Lamont and Crispian Sallis (losing to Gianni Quaranta, Brian Ackland-Snow, Brian Savegar and Elio Altamura for the romance, A Room with a View) Best Editing for Ray Lovejoy (losing to Claire Simpson for Platoon), and Best Sound for Graham V. Hartstone, Nicolas Le Messurier, Michael A. Carter, and Roy Charman (losing to John K. Wilkinson, Richard Rogers, Charles Grenzbach and Simon Kaye for Platoon).  Weaver's nomination remains a rarity in the action or science-fiction genres.  At the 44th Golden Globe Awards, she was nominated for Best Actress in a Drama (again losing to Matlin for Children of a Lesser God). 
At the 40th British Academy Film Awards, Aliens received the award for Best Special Visual Effects and three other nominations: Best Production Design (losing to A Room with a View) Best Makeup and Hair for Peter Robb King (losing to Sohichiro Meda, Tameyuki Aimi, Chihako Naito, and Noriko Takemazawa for the war film Ran), and Best Sound (losing to romantic drama Out of Africa).  At the 14th Saturn Awards, the film received eight awards: Best Science Fiction Film, Best Actress (Weaver), Best Performance by a Young Actor (Henn), Best Supporting Actress (Goldstein), Best Supporting Actor (Paxton), Best Special Effects (Winston and the L.A. Effects Group) and Best Director and Best Writing (both for Cameron).  It received a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. 
Home media Edit
Aliens was released on VHS in February 1987, priced at $89.98.   An extended cut of the film, including scenes deleted from the theatrical release, was broadcast on CBS TV in 1989. An extended edition with more deleted scenes, including the opening scene of Newt's family investigating the derelict spacecraft, was released on LaserDisc in 1991. The extended cut is 157 minutes long, 20 minutes longer than the theatrical cut.  
The extended edition was released on VHS and DVD in 1999 as part of the Alien Legacy box set with the other three available Alien films: Alien, Alien 3 and Alien Resurrection.  The DVD version was also sold separately, and both versions included additional behind-the-scenes footage.  The 2003 Alien Quadrilogy nine-DVD box set included all four films and an additional disc for each film with behind-the-scenes footage and featurettes (including a three-hour documentary, Superior Firepower: The Making of Aliens). Theatrical and extended cuts were available for each film. The Aliens disc included commentary by cast and crew members, including Cameron Weaver did not participate. Each film was sold separately (including its bonus disc) in 2004.  
Aliens was released on Blu-ray in 2010 as part of the Alien Anthology box set with remastered footage, theatrical and extended versions, and featurettes found in earlier releases. The film was released separately on Blu-ray in 2011.   It was released on Blu-ray and digital download for its 30th anniversary in 2016, with a new interview with Cameron about his inspirations for the film. In addition to the theatrical and extended versions, the release contained a limited-edition lithograph of Ripley in battle with the alien queen, an art book focused on the Aliens comic books by Dark Horse Comics, and collectible cards with concept art by Cameron.  A limited-edition, 75-copy vinyl soundtrack was also released that year. 
Other media Edit
Merchandising for a film was a relatively-new concept, popularized by the Star Wars film series.  Kenner had attempted to release figures based on Alien in 1979. Only an alien action figure was released, which was quickly withdrawn when it was deemed too frightening for children. Aliens was considered a different prospect (despite its adult-oriented content), since it focused on action and featured marines (instead of ordinary workers) fighting a large number of aliens. The toys were intended to tie into Operation Aliens (a children's cartoon scheduled for release with Alien 3 in 1992) and a series of mini-comics by Dark Horse Comics. Figures included Colonial Marines and alien hybrids.   Aliens ' has appeared across a variety of merchandise, including action figures,  punching bags,  clothing  and board games.  The National Entertainment Collectibles Association (NECA) has released figures based on the film, including Newt,  Burke and Cameron dressed as a Colonial Marine.   NECA revived the original Kenner designs in 2019, releasing better-quality models.  
The film has had several video-game adaptations. The earliest version, a first-person shooter Aliens: The Computer Game (1986), was released on several platforms. A game with the same name was released in 1987. A side-scroller, Aliens (1987), was released in Japan for the MSX.  A 1990 arcade game, Aliens, allowed players to play as Ripley or Hicks against alien variants some levels required the player to control Newt.   Aliens: A Comic Book Adventure, an adventure game focusing on puzzles, was released in 1995.   A first-person shooter, Alien Trilogy (1996), was based on Alien, Aliens, and Alien 3.   Aliens Online (1998) was an online game which allowed players to play as Colonial Marines or aliens.  Aliens: Colonial Marines (2013) is a first-person shooter and a canonical sequel of Aliens, focusing on the marines sent to search for Ripley's expedition.   Several other games have the Aliens brand or are side stories or sequels to the film's events,    and the Aliens vs. Predator game series. 
A number of comic books based on (and continuing) the story of Aliens have been published (primarily by Dark Horse Comics) since 1988. Dark Horse published a crossover of the titular aliens and those of the Predator franchise by 1990, creating a derivative Alien vs. Predator franchise with its own films, video games and comic books     this led to additional crossovers with Superman,  Batman,  Green Lantern,  Judge Dredd,  Wildcats,  and the Terminator franchise.  Reebok's boots designed for Ripley became available to the public in 2016 other versions included boots based on the power loader, Bishop, the Colonial Marines and the alien queen.   Author J. W. Rinzler published The Making of Aliens, a 300-page behind-the-scenes book with cast and crew interviews and previously-unseen photographs, in August 2020.  Operation Aliens, a board game, was released in 1992. Players as cast as a Colonial Marine or Ripley and tasked with finding a self-destruct code to destroy an infested spaceship.  
A central theme of Aliens is motherhood.   Alien can be seen as a metaphor for childbirth, but Aliens focuses on Ripley's maternal feelings for Newt. A scene in which Ripley learns her child died while she was in stasis was cut from the theatrical release, but restored in the extended edition. This helped to explain Ripley's motherly attention to Newt, since she had lost her own child. Newt has also lost everything of value, and they form a new family from the remnants of their old ones   this is reflected in the alien queen, mother of the alien creatures.   There are no paternal figures both are single mothers, defending their young. The alien queen seeks revenge against Ripley, who destroyed her brood and her means of reproduction.   According to Richard Schickel, Alien is about survival Aliens is about fighting to ensure someone else's survival. 
Newt's capture by the aliens forces Ripley to realize she is willing to die to save her. This demonstrates a selfless motherhood, unlike the queen's selfish motherhood.  Writing for the Los Angeles Times, Nancy Weber wrote that as a mother, she saw in Aliens the constant vigilance required to protect her child from predators, sexism and threats to childhood innocence.  Leilani Nishime believed despite the focus on motherhood, the nuclear family is represented in Aliens with a mother (Ripley), father (Hicks), daughter (Newt) and a loyal, self-sacrificing dog (Bishop). 
According to Charles Berg, the depictions of aliens in science fiction which became more popular during the 1980s represented American fears of immigrants (the "other"). In Aliens, this can be seen in the Caucasian single mother (Ripley) confronting the dark-skinned alien queen with an endless brood.  Tammy Ostrander and Susan Younis also note fears of overcrowding, dwindling resources and pollution, suggesting the alien queen demonizes motherhood and make it less attractive. She represents mindless, unchecked maternal instinct spawning armies of children, regardless of the lives which must be sacrificed to ensure their survival. Despite imminent destruction by the colony exploding, the queen continues to reproduce.  The aliens' life cycle taints the reproductive cycle. Creation involves rape, and birth involves a violent death.  In destroying the aliens and their queen, Ripley rejects the unchecked proliferation of their species and sets an example for her own. 
Ripley has been compared to John Rambo and dubbed Ramboette, Rambette, Fembo, Ramboline Weaver called herself Rambolina.    Mary Lee Settle said females in television and film had evolved from escapist fantasy to more accurately reflect their audiences. A gun, which can be seen as a phallic symbol, has a different meaning when wielded by Weaver.  Schickel described Ripley as transcending the customary boundaries imposed on her gender, where females serve the male hero. In Aliens, the male characters are neutralized by the film's climax and Ripley faces the queen alone.  Cameron said he does not like cowardly female characters, and removes their expected protectors to force them to fend for themselves. He called the overuse of male heroes "commercially shortsighted" in an industry whose audience is 50-percent female, and where "80 percent of the time, it's women who decide which film to see."  
The growth of female-led action films after the success of Aliens reflects the increase in women assuming non-traditional roles and the divide between professional critics (who perceive a masculinization of the heroine) and audiences which, regardless of gender, embrace, emulate and quote Ripley.  The hyper-masculine heroes played by Schwarzenegger, Stallone and Jean-Claude Van Damme were replaced by independent women capable of defending themselves and defeating villains in films such as The Silence of the Lambs (1991) and Cameron's Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991).  These female characters often perform stereotypical male actions, however, and have muscular physiques rather than feminine "soft" bodies.  When Ripley has seized command of the marines and is no longer a passive outsider in Aliens, the traditional male hero (Hicks) instructs her in the use of their weapons.  The comparison of Ripley to Rambo conflates her with the male, musclebound, gun-wielding action hero.  To balance her masculine traits, Cameron gives Ripley maternal instincts this counters homophobic audiences, who might see a masculinized female as lesbian or butch.  These traits are further offset by the more-openly-masculine Vasquez, a minor character. Vasquez (who has short hair and bigger muscles) is introduced to the audience by working out, and is asked if she has ever been mistaken for a man.  Weber appreciated the change in female characters between the films, contrasting Alien 's hysterical Lambert with the tough Vasquez (who sacrifices herself for her team, not only for the protagonist). 
Aliens is as seen as an allegory for the Vietnam War the marines (like the United States) have superior weaponry and technology, which is ineffective against an unseen, local enemy.   Like some Vietnam veterans, Ripley developed post-traumatic stress disorder after the events of Alien.  Writer Joe Abbott contrasted the depiction of the military in Aliens to the 1954 science-fiction film, Them!. In both films, humans are beset by a monstrous invasion in Them!, the military is the hero despite its responsibility for the infestation. Abbott said its post-World War II America setting depicts a competent military and a state authority which demands (and receives) the compliance of its citizens. The image of the post-Vietnam military is tarnished and scrutinized in Aliens it is ill-equipped, bumbling, and incapable of combating the threat posed by the alien creatures. Citizen cooperation can no longer be demanded (or expected) and it is Ripley, an independent contractor from outside the state and military infrastructures, who saves the day.  Unlike Them!, the military is not at fault for creating the problem in Aliens it is the Weyland-Yutani corporation. The power of the state has been superseded by the corporation, which also demands conformity for rewards and advancement and reflects a growing mistrust of corporatism the company is represented by Burke, a self-interested opportunist.  Ripley is elevated throughout the film as she benefits the community, and Burke works to undermine it for the company.  Male greed in Alien and Aliens is the catalyst for the alien infestations. In Aliens, Newt's father disregards safety measures to investigate the alien derelict without interference (ensuring any profits will be his). Then attacked by a facehugger, he is the initial infection point. 
According to Weaver, Aliens is about confronting trauma to obtain closure.  This may be seen as a reflection of Ronald Reagan's United States presidency and a conservatism which believed the hero must return to confront their fears with ethics and morality on their side.   Comparing Alien with Aliens, Roger Luckhurst said: "Even if Alien was a piece of leftist science fiction, the core of [its] myth could be inflected the other way. [Cameron's] Aliens would be a defiantly Reaganite version of the story—pumped, militarized, libertarian driven by a staunch defense of the nuclear family."  Abbott said Aliens adheres to a radical ideology and condemns centrism similar films were popular because they represented audience dissatisfaction with the social status quo.  The film places power in the individual (Ripley), instead of institutions like the military, corporations or the government. 
A cinematic touchstone with an enduring legacy, Aliens has influenced films which followed it.     Although The Terminator was a success for Cameron, the critical and commercial success of Aliens made him a blockbuster director.  The film expanded the Alien series into a franchise spanning video games, comic books and toys. Ripley and the alien creature originated in Alien, but Cameron expanded on the creature's life cycle, added new characters and factions (such as the Colonial Marines), and expanded the films' universe. 
Many cast and crew members reunited at the 2016 San Diego Comic-Con to celebrate the film's 30th anniversary, including Weaver, Biehn, Paxton, Henriksen, Reiser, Henn, Cameron and Hurd. Cameron said he normally would not participate (and did not do so for The Terminator ' s anniversary), but he considered Aliens special because of its impact on his career.   Asked why he thought Aliens ' popularity had endured, Cameron said:
I have to take my filmmaker hat off and look it as a fan and think, "Well, I really like those characters . " There's certain lines, moments, you remember moments. It's satisfying, it ends in a satisfying way . But I actually think it's those characters. We can all relate to Hudson running around "What the hell are we gonna do now man? What the f*** we gonna do?" We all know that guy.
Hurd believed that it was the experience itself: "It's a great midnight screening movie because you can talk back to the screen and you can have this group experience. It not only makes you feel something, it makes you cheer, it makes you jump. When you think of all the things that something can do, which is projected on a screen, it ticks all those boxes and it makes you laugh." 
Despite her sudden fame, Henn decided not to pursue acting so she could remain close to her family. She said some people resented her fame, and was uncertain whether people liked her for being in the film or for herself. Henn became a teacher she maintains a relationship with Weaver, and still has a framed picture of her and Weaver which the actress had given her after filming was complete. 
Cultural impact Edit
Aliens has influenced popular culture elements of the film, such as a team of soldiers being dismantled by a villain, have been repeated to the point of cliché. The same is true of Horner's influential (and often imitated) score,   which regularly appeared in action-film trailers for the following decade.   The film's influence may be seen in video-game (particularly science-fiction games) ships, armor and weapons.   Ripley became a post-feminist icon, a proactive hero who retained feminine traits. 
The film has been quoted, including Paxton's "Game over, man, game over".   Weaver's "Get away from her, you bitch" is considered one of Aliens 's most iconic lines, and has often been cited in other media.   Paxton is remembered as the only actor to play characters killed by an alien, a Terminator (in The Terminator), and a Predator (in 1990's Predator 2).  The ensemble cast's popularity led to many members appearing together in later films, including Henriksen, Goldstein and Paxton in Near Dark (1987) and Goldstein and Ralston in Lethal Weapon 2 (1989).  Biehn lost a role in Cameron's Avatar (2009) because Weaver had been cast, and the director did not want to associate that film with Aliens. 
The 1989 Italian film Shocking Dark is a remake of Aliens, moving much of the film's plot and scenes to a Venetian setting and incorporating elements of The Terminator outside Italy, it was released as Terminator II.  Aliens was named by director Roland Emmerich as one of his top ten science-fiction films, with Alien. 
Modern reception Edit
The claim has been made that Aliens belongs among the greatest films,    and it is one of the best science-fiction,  action  and sequel films.  In 2008, Empire ranked it 30th on the magazine's "500 Greatest Movies Of All Time" list.  Ellen Ripley has been recognized the American Film Institute ranked her the eighth-most-heroic character on its 2003 100 Years . 100 Heroes and Villains list,  and she was ninth on Empire ' s 2006 "100 Greatest Movie Characters" list.  It is listed in the book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die. 
Aliens is considered one of the best sequels of all time, equal to (or better than) Alien.       According to Slant Magazine, it exceeded Alien in every way.  Den of Geek called it the best blockbuster sequel ever made, and remarkable even as a standalone film.  In 2017, the website ranked it the second-best film in the series (behind Alien).  In 2011, Empire called it the greatest movie sequel ever. 
Several publications have ranked Aliens as one of the best science-fiction films ever made: fourth by Paste,  fifth by Syfy,  seventh by IGN,  ninth by Empire,  10th by GamesRadar+,  13th by Rotten Tomatoes  and 27th by Business Insider.  The film was unranked by Time Out.  It has been listed as one of the best films of the 1980s: number one by Consequence of Sound,  number six by ShortList  and Time Out,  number seven by Empire,  number 20 by GamesRadar+,  number 49 by Parade,  and unranked by Cosmopolitan,  Highsnobiety  and Marie Claire.  Several publications have listed it as one of the greatest action films of all time: number one by Time Out,  number two by Empire  and Entertainment Weekly,  number three by IGN,  number 12 by Men's Health,  and unranked by the Evening Standard.  The British Film Institute called Aliens one of the 10 greatest action films of all time: "A matriarchal masterpiece of God-bothering structural engineering, there’s really little that Aliens doesn't get right from its slow-burn exemplification of character and world-building through to its jab-jab-hook-pause-uppercut series of sustained climaxes, Cameron delivers a masterclass in action direction".  Empire readers ranked the film 17th on its 2017 "100 Greatest Movies" list. 
It has a 97% approval rating on the Rotten Tomatoes review aggregator from 76 reviews, with an average rating of nine out of 10. According to the website's consensus, "While Alien was a marvel of slow-building, atmospheric tension, Aliens packs a much more visceral punch, and features a typically strong performance from Sigourney Weaver."  The film has a score of 84 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 22 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".  Despite her character's popularity, the casting of Jenette Goldstein (a white, Jewish actress of Russian, Moroccan, and Brazilian descent) as the Latina Vasquez has been considered odd. Goldstein has said she considers herself unrecognizable as Vasquez on film, but a muscular actress was required and the filmmakers could not find anyone else with her physique. 
Aliens ' success resulted in immediate discussion of a sequel after its release.  Alien 3 was not released until 1992, however, after a tumultuous development with multiple writers and directors Cameron did not return, since he was pursuing other projects.    Its story follows Ripley after she becomes trapped with an alien creature on the prison planet Fiorina 161. The film was financially successful, but "generally panned" by critics.  Fincher disowned the film after its release, citing studio interference.  The film notably killed the Hicks and Newt characters off-screen. Biehn called it one of his greatest disappointments and refused permission for the use of his likeness in the sequel.   About the treatment of his characters, Cameron said:
I thought [the decision to eliminate Newt, Hicks, and Bishop] was dumb . I thought it was a huge slap in the face to the fans . I think it was a big mistake. Certainly, had we been involved we would not have done that, because we felt we earned something with the audience for those characters.  
An early script for Alien 3 by William Gibson was adapted as a 2019 audio drama, with Biehn and Henriksen voicing their respective roles. Gibson's version focuses on Hicks as the protagonist, dealing with the Union of Progressive Peoples and the Weyland-Yutani corporation.  
A third sequel, Alien Resurrection, was released in 1997. Directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet and based on a script by Joss Whedon, the film's story follows a clone of Ripley created to harvest an alien queen embryo which was in the original Ripley when she died. Whedon later disavowed the project.  A fourth sequel had begun development by 2002. Ridley Scott and Cameron were interested in being involved until Fox decided to develop a crossover film pitting the series' aliens against the titular alien race of its science-fiction property, Predator.   Directed and written by Paul W. S. Anderson, the film was poorly received.   It was followed by a 2007 sequel, Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem, the least financially-successful and worst-reviewed film in either franchise. 
Scott returned to the series for 2012's Prometheus (a prequel set before the events of Alien) and its sequel, Alien: Covenant. Both films were modest financial successes with mixed reviews. Scott has said he intends to pursue a sequel to Alien: Covenant.   A fifth sequel of the main Alien films was in development in 2020, based on a story by Giler and Hill Weaver was expected to return as Ripley. 
A five-hour 2017 audio drama, River of Pain, takes place between Alien and Aliens and covers the early days of the LV-426 colony and its downfall to the aliens. Actors returning to voice their characters included William Hope, Mac MacDonald, Stuart Milligan, and Alibe Parsons. 
The day definitive evidence of intelligent extraterrestrial life is made public will be the bleakest day in human history
I highly doubt it would be this dramatic. Most people already suspect that we are not alone.
Study back in 2017 confirmed that 63% of Americans believe in UFOs, how about now lol.
For the extreme and twisted cults, maybe. But most people I think are okay. Even if you didn't believe in UFOs you most certainly heard about it, and if we found evidence of them, they will just be oh OK.
Yeah, I don't think it's going to be that extreme. Some may lose their minds a little, but most people will cope. At the end of the day, given the vastness of space, it shouldn't be that shocking.
It's not that different from simply discovering a new species in the ocean. The difference is that the species came from outside of our planet.
I know one thing. They'll sell a hell of a lot of toilet paper.
I began the re-habilitatiom of the exterior walls of the TP castle after seeing Fox and CNN with zondo last night.
Can I set the remindme bot to remind me about buying toilet paper before july?
i think most of the populace’s reactions would range from “holy shit thats crazy” and move on with their day to “huh, neat”. maybe mass suicide if an invasive armada just rolled up though.
This will not happen in massive numbers at all. More people kill themselves every election cycle than would do so over this.
Ummm, you have an overactive imagination dude
I’m sure there will some sort of confusion and fear but if they wanted it (aliens), we’d be dead already.
That's why there's still a denial campaign.
Well, if the population does become overwhelmed and commit suicide, the rest of us will be hardened badasses ready to take over and advantage of what the world has to offer. Fuck the snowflakes, if you can’t handle aliens you probably couldn’t have handled jesus anyways tbh
I think you're going waaaay overboard there - all life forms in general have an overwhelming drive for self-preservation, and I believe that this force is much stronger than fear.
Our reaction all depends on what the aliens intention are, and if they do decide to make it known. If they remain quiet and mysterious, there will be many attempts by us to "talk" to them, but we are ultimately at their mercy, I doubt there is much we can do to provoke them. Personally, Iɽ wager that they are somewhere on the scale between neutral and benevolent.
But if they do turn out to have malevolent intentions, and try to coerce anything on us, I think you will find humans to have an incredible amount of "fight" in them - no matter how futile that may be. We are much more stubborn, determined, tough, and ingenious than you are suggesting.List of site sources >>>