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The initial records of the civilization that formed on the banks of the Nile River date back approximately 6,000 years. What we know about that civilization tells us that it has reached a complex standard in art, science, commerce, and religion. This elaborate culture accentuated the difference between those who had and those who had no possessions.
Egypt is located in a desert region on the banks of the Nile River in the northeastern portion of the African continent, is bordered by both the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea and is bordered by Sudan and the Libyan Desert. Although situated in a desert region with little rainfall, it is cut by a very fertile valley that runs through the Nile River, a river that played a decisive role in life and especially in the economy of ancient Egypt.
We can see on the map below the region of Egypt called Fertile Crescent.
The name Fertile Crescent derives from the fact that if we draw a junction between the Tigris River, the Euphrates River, the Nile River and the Jordan River, we will get the shape of a half moon (crescent moon) and also by having the its very fertile soil in a place where most of the land was too arid for any crop.
This fertile soil is due to the annual flood regime on the Nile River which, from June to September, the river overflowed, flooding its banks; When he returned to his normal bed, he would leave the valley fertilized by humus (organic fertilizer) and ready for planting.